Mar 28, 2020

Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Major Depression in U.S. Veterans: The Role of Deployment Cycle Adversity and Social Support

Journal of Traumatic Stress
Elizabeth M GoetterNaomi M Simon


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly co-occur in combat veterans, and this comorbidity has been associated with higher levels of distress and more social and economic costs compared to one disorder alone. In a secondary analysis of a multisite randomized controlled trial of a sample of veterans with combat-related PTSD, we examined the associations among pre-, peri-, and postdeployment adversity, social support, and clinician-diagnosed comorbid MDD. Participants completed the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II as well as structured clinical interviews for diagnostic status. Among 223 U.S. veterans of the military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan (86.9% male) with primary combat-related PTSD, 69.5% had current comorbid MDD. After adjustment for sex, a linear regression model indicated that more concerns about family disruptions during deployment, f2 = 0.065; more harassment during deployment, f2 = 0.020; and lower ratings of postdeployment social support, f2 = 0.154, were associated with more severe self-reported depression symptoms. Interventions that enhance social support as well as societal efforts to foster successful postdeployment re...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Major Depressive Disorder
Beck Depression Inventory
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Co-morbid Conditions
Mental Depression
Mental Health

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