DOI: 10.1101/19005520Oct 18, 2019Paper

Community gender systems and daughter's risk of female genital mutilation/cutting: New theory and application to Egypt

MedRxiv : the Preprint Server for Health Sciences
Kathryn M YountSarah R Hayford


We proposed and tested a feminist social ecological theory about daughters' experience of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC) in Egypt, where over 90% of women ages 15 to 49 are cut. FGMC has potential adverse effects on demographic and health outcomes and has been defined as a human rights violation. Contextual factors are important determinants of FGMC, but an integrated theory is lacking, and quantitative multilevel research is limited. We theorized that more favorable community level gender systems, including gender norms opposing FGMC and expanded opportunities for women outside of the family, would be associated with a daughter's lower risk of FGMC and would strengthen the negative association of a mother's opposition to FGMC with her daughter's risk of cutting. Using a national sample of 14,171 mother/daughter dyads from the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, we estimated multilevel discrete time hazard models to test these relationships. Community gender norms opposing FGMC had significant direct, negative associations with the hazard that a daughter was cut, but women's opportunities outside the family did not. Maternal opposition to FGMC was negatively associated with cutting a daughter, and these associat...Continue Reading

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