PMID: 20074412Jan 16, 2010Paper

Community-randomized trial of enhanced DOTS for tuberculosis control in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease : the Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
S C CavalcanteRichard E Chaisson

Abstract

Central Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To compare the impact of routine DOTS vs. enhanced DOTS (DOTS-Ampliado or DOTS-A) on tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Cluster-randomized trial in eight urban neighborhoods pair-matched by TB incidence and randomly assigned to receive either the DOTS-A or DOTS strategy. DOTS-A added intensive screening of household contacts of active TB cases and provision of treatment to secondary cases and preventive therapy to contacts with latent TB infection (LTBI) to the standard DOTS strategy. The primary endpoint was the TB incidence rates in communities after 5 years of intervention. From November 2000 to December 2004, respectively 339 and 311 pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 1003 and 960 household were identified in DOTS and DOTS-A communities. Among contacts from DOTS-A communities, 26 (4%) had active TB diagnosed and treated, 429 (61.3%) had LTBI detected and 258 (60.1%) started preventive therapy. TB incidence increased by 5% in DOTS communities and decreased by 10% in DOTS-A communities, for a difference of 15% after 5 years (P = 0.04). DOTS-A was associated with a modest reduction in TB incidence and may be an important strategy for reducing the burden of TB.

Related Concepts

Antitubercular Agents
Generations
Tuberculosis
Urban Population
Notification, Partner
Directly Observed Therapy
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
Prophylactic Treatment
Clinical Trials, Randomized
Latent Tuberculosis

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