Apr 19, 2007

Comparative morphometrics of embryonic facial morphogenesis: implications for cleft-lip etiology

The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Nathan M YoungBenedikt Hallgrímsson

Abstract

Cleft lip (CL) with or without cleft palate (CL[P]) has a complex etiology but is thought to be due to either genetic or environmentally induced disruptions of developmental processes affecting the shape and size of the facial prominences (medial nasal, lateral nasal, and maxilla). Recent advances in landmark-based morphometrics enable a rigorous reanalysis of phenotypic shape variation associated with facial clefting. Here we use geometric morphometric (GM) tools to characterize embryonic shape variation in the midface and head of six strains of mice that are both cleft-liable (A, A/WySn, CL/Fr) and normal (BALB/cBy, C57BL, CD1). Data were comprised of two-dimensional landmarks taken from frontal and lateral photographs of embryos spanning the time period in which the facial prominences fuse (GD10-12). Results indicate that A/- strain mice, and particularly A/WySn, have overall smaller midfaces compared to other strains. The A/WySn strain also has significant differences in facial shape related to retarded development. Overall, CL/Fr strain mice are normal-sized, but tend to have undersized maxillary prominences that do not project anteriorly and have a small nasal contact area. These results suggest that the etiology of cleft...Continue Reading

  • References17
  • Citations22

References

  • References17
  • Citations22

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Embryo
Entire Maxilla
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Maxilla
Cleft Palate, Isolated
Properdin Deficiency, X-LINKED
Face
BALB/cBy Mouse
Etiology
FUSE gene

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