Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by a variety of moulds. Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most prominent member of this toxin family, was first described by van der Merwe et al. in Nature in 1965. Dietary exposure to OTA represents a serious health issue and has been associated with several human and animal diseases including poultry ochratoxicosis, porcine nephropathy, human endemic nephropathies and urinary tract tumours in humans. More than 30 years ago, OTA was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents and since then extensive research has been performed in order to investigate its mode of action, however, this is still under debate. OTA is regarded as the most toxic family member, however, other ochratoxins or their metabolites and, in particular, ochratoxin mixtures or combinations with other mycotoxins may represent serious threats to human and animal health. This review summarises and evaluates current knowledge about the differential and comparative toxicity of the ochratoxin group.
Synthesis of 14C-ochratoxin A and 14C-ochratoxin B and a comparative study of their distribution in rats using whole body autoradiography
Influence of ochratoxin B on the ochratoxin A inhibition of phenylalanyl-tRNA formation in vitro and protein synthesis in hepatoma tissue culture cells
Renal tubular secretion and reabsorption as factors in ochratoxicosis: effects of probenecid on nephrotoxicity
Comparative toxicity of ochratoxin A and crude Aspergillus ochraceus culture extract in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Effects of two metabolites of ochratoxin A, (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha, on immune response in mice
Comparative study of the effect of ochratoxin A analogues on yeast aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and on the growth and protein synthesis of hepatoma cells
Effects of ochratoxin A metabolites on yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase and on the growth and in vivo protein synthesis of hepatoma cells
Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy and spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in kidneys and blood of Polish swine
Formation of (4R)- and (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and 10-hydroxyochratoxin A from Ochratoxin A by rabbit liver microsomes
Formation of (4R)- and (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A from ochratoxin A by liver microsomes from various species
Structure-activity studies in E. coli strains on ochratoxin A (OTA) and its analogues implicate a genotoxic free radical and a cytotoxic thiol derivative as reactive metabolites
Sister chromatid exchange frequency in cultured isolated porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) treated with ochratoxin A and alpha
Three-dimensional imaging and display of renal tumors using spiral CT: a potential aid to partial nephrectomy
The timing of preclinical toxicological studies: pharmaceutical company approaches to toxicity testing in support of initial clinical investigations
Toxicity of ochratoxin A, its opened lactone form and several of its analogs: structure-activity relationships
Reduction of ochratoxin A toxicity by heat-induced epimerization. In vitro effects of ochratoxins on embryonic chick meningeal and other cell cultures
Thymoquinone ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rodents and potentiates its antitumor activity
Phenobarbital increases DNA adduct and metabolites formed by ochratoxin A: role of CYP 2C9 and microsomal glutathione-S-transferase
Experimental mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs provoked by a diet containing ochratoxin A and penicillic acid
Metabolism and lack of DNA reactivity of the mycotoxin ochratoxin a in cultured rat and human primary hepatocytes
Risk assessment of ochratoxin: current views of the European Scientific Committee on Food, the JECFA and the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants
A new approach to studying ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced nephrotoxicity: expression profiling in vivo and in vitro employing cDNA microarrays
Ochratoxin A and some of its derivatives modulate radical formation of porcine blood monocytes and granulocytes
Structurally related mycotoxins ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, and citrinin differ in their genotoxic activities and in their mode of action in human-derived liver (HepG2) cells: implications for risk assessment
In vitro investigation of individual and combined cytotoxic effects of ochratoxin A and other selected mycotoxins on renal cells
Cloning a part of the ochratoxin A biosynthetic gene cluster of Penicillium nordicum and characterization of the ochratoxin polyketide synthase gene
Ochratoxin A: comparative pharmacokinetics and toxicological implications (experimental and domestic animals and humans)
Ochratoxin A biosynthetic genes in Aspergillus ochraceus are differentially regulated by pH and nutritional stimuli
Evidence of a new dechlorinated ochratoxin A derivative formed in opossum kidney cell cultures after pretreatment by modulators of glutathione pathways: correlation with DNA-adduct formation
Genotoxicity of the hydroquinone metabolite of ochratoxin A: structure-activity relationships for covalent DNA adduction
Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A and their natural occurrence in Mediterranean virgin olive oil
Analysis of risk assessment and risk management processes in the derivation of maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food
Individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and citrinin on viability and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and on chromosome aberrations in mice bone marrow cells
Aspergillus westerdijkiae polyketide synthase gene "aoks1" is involved in the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A
Effect of some mycotoxins on superoxide anion production of isolated human neutrophils and in whole blood
Analysis of the effect of nutritional factors on OTA and OTB biosynthesis and polyketide synthase gene expression in Aspergillus ochraceus
Erratum to "High prevalence of B and G aflatoxin-producing fungi in sugarcane field soil in Japan: heteroduplex panel analysis identifies a new genotype within Aspergillus Section Flavi and Aspergillus nomius"
Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy
Cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in kidney cells exposed to the mycotoxins ochratoxin a and citrinin: individual and combined effects
Ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid involvement in nephropathies and associated urothelial tract tumours
Ochratoxin A levels in human serum and foods from nephropathy patients in Tunisia: where are you now?
Experimental mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs provoked by a mouldy diet containing ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1
A potential role of calcium in apoptosis and aberrant chromatin forms in porcine kidney PK15 cells induced by individual and combined ochratoxin A and citrinin
Roles of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases in ochratoxin A genotoxicity in human epithelial lung cells
Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against Ochratoxin B and its application in ELISA
A reassessment of risk associated with dietary intake of ochratoxin A based on a lifetime exposure model
Ochratoxin a and mitotic disruption: mode of action analysis of renal tumor formation by ochratoxin A
Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus niger aggregate strains isolated from harvested maize in three Portuguese regions
Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins
Gesetzliche Regelungen für Mykotoxine in Lebensmitteln (Official Regulations on Mycotoxins in Food).
Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed Between Ochratoxin-Producing and Non-Producing Strains of Aspergillus westerdijkiae
A review of the evidence that ochratoxin A is an Nrf2 inhibitor: implications for nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity
Mycotoxins' activity at toxic and sub-toxic concentrations: differential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of single and combined administration of sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A and citrinin on the hepatocellular cancer cell line Hep3B
Toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone and of mixtures of citrinin and ochratoxin A in vitro
Analysis of individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 cells with mathematical models
The influence of salt (NaCl) on ochratoxin A biosynthetic genes, growth and ochratoxin A production by three strains of Penicillium nordicum on a dry-cured ham-based medium
Identification and characterization of the polyketide synthase involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus carbonarius
Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-induced Dermal Toxicity and Tumorigenesis Through Oxidative Stress-related Pathways
Presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin in alcoholic drinks from southern European countries: wine and beer
Cytotoxic assessment of the regulated, co-existing mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin, in single, binary and tertiary mixtures
Differential activation of MAPKs by individual and combined ochratoxin A and citrinin treatments in porcine kidney PK15 cells
Genotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A after simultaneous application of the in vivo micronucleus and comet assay
Structure elucidation and in vitro cytotoxicity of ochratoxin α amide, a new degradation product of ochratoxin A
High content analysis: a sensitive tool to detect and quantify the cytotoxic, synergistic and antagonistic effects of chemical contaminants in foods
In vitro and in vivo metabolism of ochratoxin A: a comparative study using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry
Cytotoxic and genotoxic potencies of single and combined spore extracts of airborne OTA-producing and OTA-non-producing Aspergilli in Human lung A549 cells
Cytotoxicity of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A on Caco-2 cell line in presence of resveratrol
Hepatotoxic effect of ochratoxin A and citrinin, alone and in combination, and protective effect of vitamin E: In vitro study in HepG2 cell
Functional Characterization of New Polyketide Synthase Genes Involved in Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Ochraceus fc-1
Structure-activity relationship of ochratoxin A and synthesized derivatives: importance of amino acid and halogen moiety for cytotoxicity
Determination of 16 mycotoxins in vegetable oils using a QuEChERS method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Utilization of Multi-Immunization and Multiple Selection Strategies for Isolation of Hapten-Specific Antibodies from Recombinant Antibody Phage Display Libraries
Chitosan nanoparticles plus quercetin suppress the oxidative stress, modulate DNA fragmentation and gene expression in the kidney of rats fed ochratoxin A-contaminated diet
Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition
Identification of a Halogenase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Ochratoxin A in Aspergillus carbonarius
Heterologous Expression and Characterization of A Novel Ochratoxin A Degrading Enzyme, N-acyl-L-amino Acid Amidohydrolase, from Alcaligenes faecalis
Total Dietary Intake and Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 , Ochratoxin A and Fuminisins of Children in Lao Cai Province, Vietnam
An immunoassay for ochratoxin A using tetramethylrhodamine-labeled ochratoxin A as a probe based on a binding-induced change in fluorescence intensity
Novel haptens and monoclonal antibodies with subnanomolar affinity for a classical analytical target, ochratoxin A
Selenium Yeast Alleviates Ochratoxin A-Induced Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress via Modulation of the PI3K/AKT and Nrf2/Keap1 Signaling Pathways in the Kidneys of Chickens
Development of ELISA and Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ochratoxins (OTA and OTB) Detection Based on Monoclonal Antibody
Short-term effects of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, fumonisin B1 or ochratoxin on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system and its regulatory genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver
Ochratoxin A mediates MAPK activation, modulates IL-2 and TNF-α mRNA expression and induces apoptosis by mitochondria-dependent and mitochondria-independent pathways in human H9 T cells
Safety of the fungal workhorses of industrial biotechnology: update on the mycotoxin and secondary metabolite potential of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Trichoderma reesei
Role of Some Food-Grade Synthesized Flavonoids on the Control of Ochratoxin A in Aspergillus carbonarius
Toxicological and Medical Aspects of Aspergillus -Derived Mycotoxins Entering the Feed and Food Chain
Change of Amino Acid Residues in Idiotypic Nanobodies Enhanced the Sensitivity of Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Mycotoxin Ochratoxin A in Cereals
Multiple-endpoint in vitro carcinogenicity test in human cell line TK6 distinguishes carcinogens from non-carcinogens and highlights mechanisms of action.
Probing the Interactions of Ochratoxin B, Ochratoxin C, Patulin, Deoxynivalenol, and T-2 Toxin with Human Serum Albumin.
Impact of some environmental factors on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae
Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles and simvastatin against toxigenic species of Aspergillus
The presence of ochratoxin A does not influence Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth kinetics but leads to the formation of modified ochratoxins
Recent progress in determination of ochratoxin a in foods by chromatographic and mass spectrometry methods.
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