Apr 25, 2020

The mechanics of Temporal Interference stimulation

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
J. CaoPulkit Grover

Abstract

We utilize single neuron models to understand mechanisms behind Temporal Interference (TI) stimulation. We say that a neuron exhibits TI stimulation if it does not fire for a high-frequency sinusoidal input, but fires when the input is a low-frequency modulation of the high-frequency sinusoid (specifically that generated by addition of two high frequency sinusoids with a small difference in their frequencies), while the maximum amplitude is kept the same in both cases. Our key observation -- that holds for both FitzHugh-Nagumo and Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models -- is that for neuron models that do exhibit TI stimulation, a high frequency pure sinusoidal input results in a current balance between inward and outward currents. This current balance leads to a subthreshold periodic orbit that keeps the membrane potential from spiking for sinusoidal inputs. However, the balance is disturbed when the envelope of the sinusoids is modulated with a high slope: the fast-changing envelope activates fast depolarizing currents without giving slow outward currents time to respond. This imbalance causes the membrane potential to build up, causing the neuron to fire. This mechanistic understanding can help design current waveforms for neurons tha...Continue Reading

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