Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder caused by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia. Abnormally synchronized neuronal oscillations between 8 and 15 Hz in the basal ganglia are implicated in motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, how these abnormal oscillations are generated and maintained in the dopamine-depleted state is unknown. Based on neural recordings in a primate model of Parkinson's disease and other experimental and computational evidence, we hypothesized that the recurrent circuit between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) generates and maintains parkinsonian oscillations, and that the cortical excitatory input to the STN amplifies them. To investigate this hypothesis through computer simulations, we developed a spiking neuron model of the STN-GPe circuit by incorporating electrophysiological properties of neurons and synapses. A systematic parameter search by computer simulation identified regions in the space of the intrinsic excitability of GPe neurons and synaptic strength from the GPe to the STN that reproduce normal and parkinsonian states. In the parkinsonian state, reduced firing of GPe neurons and increased GPe-STN inhibition trigger burst act...Continue Reading
Response characteristics of subthalamic neurons to the stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex in the rat
Presynaptic dopamine D2 and muscarine M3 receptors inhibit excitatory and inhibitory transmission to rat subthalamic neurones in vitro
Effects of apomorphine on subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus neurons in patients with Parkinson's disease
Subthalamic-pallidal interactions are critical in determining normal and abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia
From single extracellular unit recording in experimental and human Parkinsonism to the development of a functional concept of the role played by the basal ganglia in motor control
Oscillatory nature of human basal ganglia activity: relationship to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease
High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus eliminates pathological thalamic rhythmicity in a computational model
Conductance-based model of the voltage-dependent generation of a plateau potential in subthalamic neurons
The relationship between local field potential and neuronal discharge in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease
Balance of monosynaptic excitatory and disynaptic inhibitory responses of the globus pallidus induced after stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in the monkey
Neuronal firing before and after burst discharges in the monkey basal ganglia is predictably patterned in the normal state and altered in parkinsonism
Single-axon tracing study of corticostriatal projections arising from primary motor cortex in primates
Computational analysis of subthalamic nucleus and lenticular fasciculus activation during therapeutic deep brain stimulation
Dopamine replacement therapy does not restore the full spectrum of normal pallidal activity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine primate model of Parkinsonism
Temporal and spatial alterations in GPi neuronal encoding might contribute to slow down movement in Parkinsonian monkeys
Channel density distributions explain spiking variability in the globus pallidus: a combined physiology and computer simulation database approach
Parkinsonian beta oscillations in the external globus pallidus and their relationship with subthalamic nucleus activity
Sparse but selective and potent synaptic transmission from the globus pallidus to the subthalamic nucleus
Modeling shifts in the rate and pattern of subthalamopallidal network activity during deep brain stimulation
Conditions for the generation of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus network
Primary motor cortex of the parkinsonian monkey: differential effects on the spontaneous activity of pyramidal tract-type neurons
Distinct oscillatory STN-cortical loops revealed by simultaneous MEG and local field potential recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease
Dendritic sodium channels promote active decorrelation and reduce phase locking to parkinsonian input oscillations in model globus pallidus neurons
The role of inhibition in generating and controlling Parkinson's disease oscillations in the Basal Ganglia
Subthalamo-pallidal interactions underlying parkinsonian neuronal oscillations in the primate basal ganglia
The subthalamic nucleus is one of multiple innervation sites for long-range corticofugal axons: a single-axon tracing study in the rat
Proliferation of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synapses following degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons
Short-term depression of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synaptic transmission and implications for patterning subthalamic activity
Striatal cholinergic receptor activation causes a rapid, selective and state-dependent rise in cortico-striatal β activity
Dysregulation of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus network dynamics in parkinsonian mice during cortical slow-wave activity and activation.
A biologically constrained spiking neural network model of the primate basal ganglia with overlapping pathways exhibits action selection.
A Computational Model of Loss of Dopaminergic Cells in Parkinson's Disease Due to Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity
Quantitative theory of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the suppression of pathological rhythms in Parkinson's disease
Continuous Dopaminergic Stimulation as a Treatment for Parkinson's Disease: Current Status and Future Opportunities.
Self-Tuning Deep Brain Stimulation Controller for Suppression of Beta Oscillations: Analytical Derivation and Numerical Validation
Connectivity and Functionality of the Globus Pallidus Externa Under Normal Conditions and Parkinson's Disease.
Interaction of Indirect and Hyperdirect Pathways on Synchrony and Tremor-Related Oscillation in the Basal Ganglia.
Basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (MDS)
The basal ganglia is comprised of the neostriatum, the external and internal pallidal segments, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The basal ganglia circuitry is responsible for the correct execution of voluntary movements and is implicated in Parkinson's disease. Here is the latest research investigating the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.