Concomitant and decoupled effects of cigarette smoke and SCAL1 upregulation on oncogenic phenotypes and ROS detoxification in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Scientific Reports
Carmela Rieline V CruzReynaldo L Garcia

Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with smoking as its primary predisposing factor. Although carcinogens in cigarettes are known to cause oncogenic DNA alterations, analyses of patient cohorts revealed heterogeneous genetic aberrations with no clear driver mutations. The contribution of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of lung cancer has since been demonstrated. Their dysregulation has been linked to cancer initiation and progression. A novel long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called smoke and cancer-associated lncRNA 1 (SCAL1) was recently found upregulated in smoke-exposed adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cells. The present study characterized the phenotypic consequences of SCAL1 overexpression and knockdown using A549 cells as model system, with or without prior exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Increase in SCAL1 levels either by CSE treatment or SCAL1 overexpression led to increased cell migration, extensive cytoskeletal remodeling, and resistance to apoptosis. Further, SCAL1 levels were negatively correlated with intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, SCAL1 knockdown showed converse results for these assays. These results confirm the oncogenic function ...Continue Reading

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