Jan 29, 2013

Concurrent activation of striatal direct and indirect pathways during action initiation

Nature
Guohong CuiRui M Costa

Abstract

The basal ganglia are subcortical nuclei that control voluntary actions, and they are affected by a number of debilitating neurological disorders. The prevailing model of basal ganglia function proposes that two orthogonal projection circuits originating from distinct populations of spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the striatum--the so-called direct and indirect pathways--have opposing effects on movement: activity of direct-pathway SPNs is thought to facilitate movement, whereas activity of indirect-pathway SPNs is presumed to inhibit movement. This model has been difficult to test owing to the lack of methods to selectively measure the activity of direct- and indirect-pathway SPNs in freely moving animals. Here we develop a novel in vivo method to specifically measure direct- and indirect-pathway SPN activity, using Cre-dependent viral expression of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) GCaMP3 in the dorsal striatum of D1-Cre (direct-pathway-specific) and A2A-Cre (indirect-pathway-specific) mice. Using fibre optics and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) in mice performing an operant task, we observed transient increases in neural activity in both direct- and indirect-pathway SPNs when animals initiate...Continue Reading

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Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Biochemical Pathway
Cre recombinase, Enterobacteria phage P1
Calcium [EPC]
Neostriatum
Calcium
Gabarapl1
Neurons
Fluorescence
Transcription Initiation
Dorsal Striatum

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