Congenital Chylothorax of the Newborn: A Systematic Analysis of Published Cases between 1990 and 2018.

Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Bernhard ReschFriedrich Reiterer

Abstract

Congenital chylothorax (CCT) of the newborn is a rare entity but the most common cause of pleural effusion in this age-group. We aimed to find the optimal treatment strategy. A PubMed search was performed according to the PRISMA criteria. All cases were analyzed according to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal treatment modalities and follow-ups. We identified 753 cases from 157 studies published between 1990 and 2018. The all-cause mortality rate was 28%. Prematurity was present in 71%, male gender dominated 57%, mean gestational age was 34 weeks, and birth weight was 2,654 g. Seventy-nine percent of newborns had bilateral CCT, the most common associated congenital anomalies with CCT were pulmonary lymphangiectasia and pulmonary hypoplasia, and the most common chromosomal aberrations were Down, Noonan, and Turner syndromes, respectively. Mechanical ventilation was reported in 381 cases for mean 17 (range 1-120) days; pleural punctuations and drainages were performed in 32% and 64%, respectively. Forty-four percent received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for mean 21 days, 46% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet for mean 37 days, 20% octreotide, and 3% somatostatin; chemical pleurodesis was performed in 116 cases, and surgery ...Continue Reading

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