Why certain viruses cross the physical barrier of the human placenta but others do not is incompletely understood. Over the past 20 years, we have gained deeper knowledge of intrauterine infection and routes of viral transmission. This review focuses on human viruses that replicate in the placenta, infect the fetus, and cause birth defects, including rubella virus, varicella-zoster virus, parvovirus B19, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and hepatitis E virus type 1. Detailed discussions include ( a) the architecture of the uterine-placental interface, ( b) studies of placental explants ex vivo that provide insights into the infection and spread of CMV and ZIKV to the fetal compartment and how these viruses undermine early development, and ( c) novel treatments and vaccines that limit viral replication and have the potential to reduce dissemination, vertical transmission and the occurrence of congenital disease.
A study of CD45RO, CD45RA and CD29 antigen expression on human decidual T cells in an early stage of pregnancy
Cell types infected in human cytomegalovirus placentitis identified by immunohistochemical double staining
Human cytotrophoblasts adopt a vascular phenotype as they differentiate. A strategy for successful endovascular invasion?
Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production by human amnion: regulation by cytokines, growth factors, glucocorticoids, phorbol esters, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide
Human cytomegalovirus infection of placental cytotrophoblasts in vitro and in utero: implications for transmission and pathogenesis
Alpha5beta1 integrin as a cellular coreceptor for human parvovirus B19: requirement of functional activation of beta1 integrin for viral entry.
Human cytotrophoblasts promote endothelial survival and vascular remodeling through secretion of Ang2, PlGF, and VEGF-C
Human cytomegalovirus transmission from the uterus to the placenta correlates with the presence of pathogenic bacteria and maternal immunity
Human cytomegalovirus interleukin-10 downregulates metalloproteinase activity and impairs endothelial cell migration and placental cytotrophoblast invasiveness in vitro
Reciprocal chemokine receptor and ligand expression in the human placenta: implications for cytotrophoblast differentiation
Vaccine development to prevent cytomegalovirus disease: report from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee
Distribution of varicella-zoster virus DNA and gene products in tissues of a first-trimester varicella-infected fetus
Pu and U atom ratios and concentration factors in reservoir 11 and Asanov Swamp, Mayak PA: an application of accelerator mass spectrometry
Human placental Hofbauer cells express sprouty proteins: a possible modulating mechanism of villous branching
EPHB4 regulates chemokine-evoked trophoblast responses: a mechanism for incorporating the human placenta into the maternal circulation
Cytotrophoblasts infected with a pathogenic human cytomegalovirus strain dysregulate cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion molecules: a quantitative analysis
Cytotrophoblast induction of arterial apoptosis and lymphangiogenesis in an in vivo model of human placentation
Decidual stromal cell response to paracrine signals from the trophoblast: amplification of immune and angiogenic modulators
Incidence of cytomegalovirus infection among the general population and pregnant women in the United States
DC-sign+ CD163+ macrophages expressing hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 are located within chorion villi of the placenta
The 11-Kilodalton Nonstructural Protein of Human Parvovirus B19 Facilitates Viral DNA Replication by Interacting with Grb2 through Its Proline-Rich Motifs
Zika Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Disrupts Glycosaminoglycans and Causes Permeability in Developing Human Placentas
Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Reduce Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Spread in Developing Placentas
Survey of cellular immune responses to human cytomegalovirus infection in the microenvironment of the uterine-placental interface
Cytomegalovirus Viremia in HIV-1 Subtype C Positive Women at Delivery in Botswana and Adverse Birth/Infant Health Outcomes
Syncytiotrophoblast of Placentae from Women with Zika Virus Infection Has Altered Tight Junction Protein Expression and Increased Paracellular Permeability
Early- and Late-Respiratory Outcome in Very Low Birth Weight with or without Intrauterine Inflammation.
Maternal Influenza A Virus Infection Restricts Fetal and Placental Growth and Adversely Affects the Fetal Thymic Transcriptome.
Prenatal cytomegalovirus, rubella, and Zika virus infections associated with developmental disabilities: past, present, and future.
The Involvement of Cell Adhesion Molecules, Tight Junctions, and Gap Junctions in Human Placentation.
Do some viruses use growth hormone, prolactin and their receptors to facilitate entry into cells?: Episodic evolution of hormones and receptors suggests host-virus arms races; related placental lactogens may provide protective viral decoys.
Single-cell RNA expression profiling of SARS-CoV-2-related ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in human trophectoderm and placenta.
Human Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells in the Maternal-Fetal Interface. Lost Soldiers or Special Forces?
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Placental Infection and Inflammation Leading to Fetal Distress and Neonatal Multi-Organ Failure in an Asymptomatic Woman.
First trimester mechanisms of gestational sac placental and foetal teratogenicity: a framework for birth cohort studies.
First-trimester diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection after maternal primary infection in early pregnancy: feasibility study of viral genome amplification by PCR on chorionic villi obtained by CVS.
Receptors in host pathogen interactions between human cytomegalovirus and the placenta during congenital infection.
Intrauterine vertical SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case confirming transplacental transmission followed by divergence of the viral genome.
Central role of the placenta during viral infection: Immuno-competences and miRNA defensive responses.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.