The purpose of this review/editorial is to discuss how and when to treat the most common cyanotic congenital heart defects (CHDs); the discussion of acyanotic heart defects was presented in a previous editorial. By and large, the indications and timing of intervention are decided by the severity of the lesion. While some patients with acyanotic CHD may not require surgical or transcatheter intervention because of spontaneous resolution of the defect or mildness of the defect, the majority of cyanotic CHD will require intervention, mostly surgical. Total surgical correction is the treatment of choice for tetralogy of Fallot patients although some patients may need to be palliated initially by performing a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. For transposition of the great arteries, arterial switch (Jatene) procedure is the treatment of choice, although Rastelli procedure is required for patients who have associated ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary stenosis (PS). Some of these babies may require Prostaglandin E1 infusion and/or balloon atrial septostomy prior to corrective surgery. In tricuspid atresia patients, most babies require palliation at presentation either with a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt or pulmonary artery...Continue Reading
Anatomical correction of complete transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect in infancy
Baffle fenestration with subsequent transcatheter closure. Modification of the Fontan operation for patients at increased risk
Relation between preoperative left ventricular muscle mass and outcome of the Fontan procedure in patients with tricuspid atresia
Functional closure of physiologically advantageous ventricular septal defects. Observations in three cases with tricuspid atresia
Complete repair of transposition of the great arteries with pulmonary stenosis. A review and report of a case corrected by using a new surgical technique
Further observations on the spontaneous closure of physiologically advantageous ventricular septal defects in tricuspid atresia: surgical implications
Palliative reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in tricuspid atresia: a report of 5 patients
Prolongation of RV-PA conduit life span by percutaneous stent implantation. Intermediate-term results
Unifocalization for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries
Valve perforation and balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in an infant with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia
Role of inverted buttoned device in transcatheter occlusion of atrial septal defects or patent foramen ovale with right-to-left shunting associated with previously operated complex congenital cardiac anomalies
Initial results and medium-term follow-up of stent implantation of patent ductus arteriosus in duct-dependent pulmonary circulation
Outcome of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt in first-stage palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a multi-institutional study
Lessons learned from the development of a new hybrid strategy for the management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Right ventricular outflow tract stent as a bridge to surgery in a premature infant with tetralogy of Fallot
Incidence and angiographic predictors of collateral function in patients with stable coronary artery disease scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention
Primary arterial switch operation in children presenting late with d-transposition of great arteries and intact ventricular septum. When is it too late for a primary arterial switch operation?
Concomitant stenting of the patent ductus arteriosus and radiofrequency valvotomy in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and intermediate right ventricle: early in-hospital and medium-term outcomes
Consensus on timing of intervention for common congenital heart diseases: part I - acyanotic heart defects
Surgical Timing and Outcomes of Unilateral Versus Bilateral Superior Cavopulmonary Anastomosis: An Analysis of Pediatric Heart Network Public Databases.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.