Nov 1, 1989

Construction of the endoplasmic reticulum

The Journal of Cell Biology
C LeeL B Chen

Abstract

To study the construction of the ER, we used the microtubule-disrupting drug nocodazole to induce the complete breakdown of ER structure in living cells followed by recovery in drug-free medium, which regenerates the ER network within 15 min. Using the fluorescent dye 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide to visualize the ER, we have directly observed the network construction process in living cells. In these experiments, the ER network was constructed through an iterative process of extension, branching, and intersection of new ER tubules driven by the ER motility previously described as tubule branching. We have tested the cytoskeletal requirements of this process. We find that newly formed ER tubules are aligned with single microtubules but not actin fibers or vimentin intermediate filaments. Microtubule polymerization preceded the extension of ER tubules and, in experiments with a variety of different drugs, appeared to be a necessary condition for the ER network formation. Furthermore, perturbations of the pattern of microtubule polymerization with microtubule-specific drugs caused exactly correlated perturbations of the pattern of ER construction. Induction of abnormally short, nonintersecting microtubules with 20 microM tax...Continue Reading

  • References20
  • Citations71

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Immunofluorescence Assay
Plant alkaloid
Tonofilaments
VIM gene
Tissue Membrane
Anzatax
Cell Motility
Isoactin
Actins
Aggregation

About this Paper

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.