Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was...Continue Reading
Influence of nonfermented dairy products containing bacterial starter cultures on lactose maldigestion in humans
Relative efficiency of yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, hydrolyzed-lactose milk, and a commercial lactase tablet in alleviating lactose maldigestion
Lactose malabsorption from yogurt, pasteurized yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, and cultured milk in lactase-deficient individuals
Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk during fermentation with lactic acid bacteria
Prevalence of Salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and fecal coliforms in bulk tank milk on US dairies
Outbreak of listeriosis among Mexican immigrants as a result of consumption of illicitly produced Mexican-style cheese
Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications
Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in bulk tank milk from US dairies as determined by polymerase chain reaction
Survival of a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the 60-day aging period of cheddar cheese made from unpasteurized milk
A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in pennsylvania
Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices
Invasive listeriosis in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2009: further targeted prevention needed for higher-risk groups
Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives
Inhibition of p-IκBα Ubiquitylation by Autophagy-Related Gene 7 to Regulate Inflammatory Responses to Bacterial Infection
The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice
Loss of allergy-protective capacity of raw cow's milk after heat treatment coincides with loss of immunologically active whey proteins.
Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies
Determinants of weekly raw milk use by at-home meal preparers in the USA: evidence from the 2014-2016 American Time Use Survey - Eating and Health Module.
Microbiological Characteristics of Gouda Cheese Manufactured with Pasteurized and Raw Milk during Ripening Using Next Generation Sequencing
Suppression of Food Allergic Symptoms by Raw Cow's Milk in Mice is Retained after Skimming but Abolished after Heating the Milk-A Promising Contribution of Alkaline Phosphatase
Isolation and characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from raw cow milk in Jiangsu and Shandong provinces, China.
Occurrence, Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance-Associated Markers in Campylobacter Species Isolated from Retail Fresh Milk and Water Samples in Two District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Mycobacterium bovis and you: A comprehensive look at the bacteria, its similarities to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its relationship with human disease.
Persistence of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo in Refrigerated Raw Milk: A Transmission Risk of Leptospirosis to Humans.
Comparative genomic analysis between newly sequenced Brucella abortus vaccine strain A19 and another Brucella abortus vaccine S19
Campylobacteriosis is caused by the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Discover the latest research on Campylobacteriosis here.