Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

The Journal of Physiology
Ioannis VogiatzisSpyros Zakynthinos


We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals and quadriceps muscle blood flow (IMBF and QMBF, respectively) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy over the left 7th intercostal space and the left vastus lateralis muscle, respectively, using indocyanine green dye. The mean pressure time product of the diaphragm and the work of breathing did not differ across the three exercise tests. After hypoxic exercise, twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure fell by 33.3 +/- 4.8%, significantly (P < 0.05) more than after both normoxic (25.6 +/- 3.5% reduction) and hyperoxic (26.6 +/- 3.3% reduction) exercise, confirming greater fatigue in hypoxia. Despite lower leg power output in hypoxia, neith...Continue Reading


Nov 1, 1976·The American Journal of Physiology·D E FixlerL D Horwitz
Sep 1, 1992·Journal of Applied Physiology·B D JohnsonJ A Dempsey
Apr 1, 1986·Journal of Applied Physiology·R F Fregosi, J A Dempsey
Nov 1, 1986·The American Journal of Physiology·L B RowellN J Christensen
Jan 1, 1973·Journal of Applied Physiology·L H HartleyM Landowne
Mar 1, 1974·Acta paediatrica Scandinavica·V Andersen, E Andersen
Sep 1, 1966·Journal of Applied Physiology·J StenbergR Messin
Aug 1, 1980·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·D HorstmanR E Jackson
Aug 1, 1995·Journal of Applied Physiology·F LaghiM J Tobin
Jan 1, 1995·Journal of Applied Physiology·Mark A BabcockJ A Dempsey
Dec 1, 1993·Journal of Applied Physiology·D R KnightPeter D Wagner
Jan 1, 1993·The Journal of Physiology·B D JohnsonJ A Dempsey
Sep 1, 1996·Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise·B D JohnsonJ A Dempsey
Nov 1, 1996·Journal of Applied Physiology·Mark A BabcockJ A Dempsey
May 1, 1997·Journal of Applied Physiology·Craig A HarmsJ A Dempsey
Jun 1, 1997·The American Journal of Physiology·Maria KoskolouR C Roach
Aug 4, 1998·Journal of Applied Physiology·Craig A HarmsJ A Dempsey
Aug 13, 1999·Journal of Applied Physiology·T J WetterJ A Dempsey
Jan 21, 2000·Journal of Applied Physiology·R ChenP T Macklem
Jan 21, 2000·Journal of Applied Physiology·D C PooleT I Musch
Jul 25, 2000·Journal of Applied Physiology·Craig A HarmsJ A Dempsey
Oct 29, 2000·Journal of Applied Physiology·Robert BoushelMichael Kjaer
Jun 13, 2001·The European Respiratory Journal·M GudjonsdottirC F Donner
Apr 18, 2002·American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology·A W SheelJ A Dempsey
Jun 19, 2002·Journal of Applied Physiology·Mark A BabcockJ A Dempsey
Oct 22, 2002·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Jose A L CalbetBengt Saltin
Dec 4, 2004·European Journal of Applied Physiology·Ioannis VogiatzisCharis Roussos
Apr 18, 2006·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·J A DempseyCurtis Smith
Oct 13, 2006·Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews·Kari K KalliokoskiRobert Boushel
Feb 24, 2007·The Journal of Physiology·Ioannis VogiatzisSpyros Zakynthinos
Oct 27, 2007·Journal of Applied Physiology·Markus Amann, Jose A L Calbet
Dec 22, 2007·Journal of Applied Physiology·Lee M Romer, M I Polkey
Jan 26, 2008·Journal of Applied Physiology·Jordan A GuenetteRobert Boushel


May 19, 2011·Journal of Sports Sciences·Ioannis VogiatzisDimitrios Athanasopoulos
Oct 19, 2011·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·Marco FerrariValentina Quaresima
May 29, 2010·Journal of Applied Physiology·Dimitris AthanasopoulosIoannis Vogiatzis
Aug 13, 2010·Respiratory Research·Samuel VergesBernard Wuyam
Mar 4, 2014·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·C de BisschopH Guenard
May 20, 2009·The Journal of Physiology·Ioannis VogiatzisSpyros Zakynthinos
Feb 2, 2011·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·David Johannes WalkerHans-Joachim Kabitz
May 12, 2010·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·Hans-Joachim KabitzWolfram Windisch
Mar 16, 2013·Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports·S N KounalakisIgor B Mekjavic
Feb 24, 2011·Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing·Suzanne Ameringer, Wally R Smith
Dec 12, 2012·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·Louise A TurnerTimothy D Mickleborough
Oct 4, 2012·The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology·Robert Boushel, Bengt Saltin
Jun 10, 2016·High Altitude Medicine & Biology·Jui-Lin Fan, Bengt Kayser
Aug 1, 2016·Sports Medicine·B SperlichJennifer Wegrzyk
Aug 20, 2016·Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports·B SperlichH-C Holmberg
Jun 7, 2014·Journal of Applied Physiology·Zafeiris LouvarisSpyros Zakynthinos
Apr 24, 2010·Journal of Applied Physiology·Jordan A GuenetteA W Sheel
Mar 18, 2011·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Ioannis VogiatzisSpyros Zakynthinos
Feb 4, 2011·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Jordan A GuenetteA W Sheel

Related Concepts

Metabolic Acidosis
Bicycling (Recreational Activity)
Cardiac Output
Respiratory Diaphragm
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test
Respiratory Muscles
Muscle Fatigue
Cardiac Output

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.