Control of Immunity by the Microbiota.

Annual Review of Immunology
Eduard AnsaldoYasmine Belkaid

Abstract

The immune system has coevolved with extensive microbial communities living on barrier sites that are collectively known as the microbiota. It is increasingly clear that microbial antigens and metabolites engage in a constant dialogue with the immune system, leading to microbiota-specific immune responses that occur in the absence of inflammation. This form of homeostatic immunity encompasses many arms of immunity, including B cell responses, innate-like T cells, and conventional T helper and T regulatory responses. In this review we summarize known examples of innate-like T cell and adaptive immunity to the microbiota, focusing on fundamental aspects of commensal immune recognition across different barrier sites. Furthermore, we explore how this cross talk is established during development, emphasizing critical temporal windows that establish long-term immune function. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of immunity to the microbiota can lead to inflammation and disease, and we pinpoint outstanding questions and controversies regarding immune system-microbiota interactions.

References

Jan 1, 1989·The Journal of Investigative Dermatology·D MetzeG Niebauer
Mar 1, 1996·Gut·L A van der WaaijD van der Waaij
Aug 3, 2002·Nature Immunology·Mikhail B LitinskiyAndrea Cerutti
Oct 12, 2002·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Yaping ChenRichard Boismenu
Jan 8, 2003·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·Kevin J MaloyFiona Powrie
Mar 3, 2004·Obstetrics and Gynecology·Michael V ZaretskyRoger E Bawdon
Jun 7, 2005·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Daniel MucidaMaria A Curotto de Lafaille
Oct 13, 2006·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·Marika C KullbergAlan Sher
Oct 13, 2006·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·Sophie HueKevin J Maloy
Nov 18, 2006·Science·J Rodrigo MoraUlrich H von Andrian
Aug 19, 2007·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Derry C Roopenian, Shreeram Akilesh
Nov 17, 2007·Cell Host & Microbe·Daniel A PetersonJeffrey I Gordon
Mar 29, 2008·Annual Review of Immunology·Troy D RandallJavier Rangel-Moreno
May 30, 2008·Nature·Sarkis K MazmanianDennis L Kasper
Sep 13, 2008·American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology·Julia B EwaschukKaren L Madsen
Feb 24, 2009·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Anisa S IsmailLora V Hooper
Apr 8, 2009·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Edward E S NieuwenhuisRichard S Blumberg
Oct 20, 2009·Cell·Ivaylo I IvanovDan R Littman
Nov 6, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Yingzi CongCharles O Elson
Jan 27, 2010·Journal of Clinical Immunology·Leman Yel
Mar 3, 2010·Annual Review of Immunology·Sidonia FagarasanKeiichiro Suzuki
Apr 24, 2010·Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders·Hjördis O AtladóttirErik T Parner
Jun 23, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Maria G Dominguez-BelloRob Knight

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Blastomycosis

Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.