Copy Number Variation Disorders

Current Genetic Medicine Reports
Tamim H Shaikh


Copy number variation (CNV) disorders arise from the dosage imbalance of one or more gene(s), resulting from deletions, duplications or other genomic rearrangements that lead to the loss or gain of genetic material. Several disorders, characterized by multiple birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities, have been associated with relatively large (>1 Mb) and often recurrent CNVs. CNVs have also been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism and schizophrenia as well as other common complex diseases. Thus, CNVs have a significant impact on human health and disease. The use of increasingly higher resolution, genomewide analysis has greatly enhanced the detection of genetic variation, including CNVs. Furthermore, the availability of comprehensive genetic variation data from large cohorts of healthy controls has the potential to greatly improve the identification of disease associated genetic variants in patient samples. This review discusses the current knowledge about CNV disorders, including the mechanisms underlying their formation and phenotypic outcomes, and the advantages and limitations of current methods of detection and disease association.


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