Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons.
Cholinergic modulation of responses to single tones produces tone-specific receptive field alterations in cat auditory cortex
Cholinergic neurons containing GABA-like and/or glutamic acid decarboxylase-like immunoreactivities in various brain regions of the rat
Basal forebrain neurons adjacent to the globus pallidus co-express GABAergic and cholinergic marker mRNAs
Ultrastructural evidence for diffuse transmission by monoamine and acetylcholine neurons of the central nervous system
Green fluorescent protein expression and colocalization with calretinin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin in the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse
Reversible inhibition of GABAA receptors by alpha7-containing nicotinic receptors on the vertebrate postsynaptic neurons
Cholinergic axons modulate GABAergic signaling among hippocampal interneurons via postsynaptic alpha 7 nicotinic receptors
The basal forebrain cholinergic system is required specifically for behaviorally mediated cortical map plasticity
Melanocortin-4 receptors expressed by cholinergic neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis
Habenula "cholinergic" neurons co-release glutamate and acetylcholine and activate postsynaptic neurons via distinct transmission modes
Prolonged disynaptic inhibition in the cortex mediated by slow, non-α7 nicotinic excitation of a specific subset of cortical interneurons
Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior
Midbrain dopamine neurons sustain inhibitory transmission using plasma membrane uptake of GABA, not synthesis
Cholinergic circuit modulation through differential recruitment of neocortical interneuron types during behaviour
Mood regulation. GABA/glutamate co-release controls habenula output and is modified by antidepressant treatment
Computational implications of biophysical diversity and multiple timescales in neurons and synapses for circuit performance
The Basal Forebrain and Motor Cortex Provide Convergent yet Distinct Movement-Related Inputs to the Auditory Cortex
Target-Specific Glycinergic Transmission from VGluT3-Expressing Amacrine Cells Shapes Suppressive Contrast Responses in the Retina
Cholinergic Signaling Controls Conditioned Fear Behaviors and Enhances Plasticity of Cortical-Amygdala Circuits
Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons in the mouse spinal cord: A focus on lamina X
Colocalization of neurotransmitter transporters on the plasma membrane of the same nerve terminal may reflect cotransmission
GABAergic innervation of the ciliary ganglion in macaque monkeys - A light and electron microscopic study
Characterization of Channelrhodopsin and Archaerhodopsin in Cholinergic Neurons of Cre-Lox Transgenic Mice
Acetylcholine Modulates the Hormones of the Growth Hormone/Insulinlike Growth Factor-1 Axis During Development in Mice
Optogenetic identification of hypothalamic orexin neuron projections to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons
Simultaneous determination of nine analytes related to the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy in diabetic rat cortex and hippocampus by HPLC-FLD
A whole-brain map of long-range inputs to GABAergic interneurons in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex
Dual recombinase fate mapping reveals a transient cholinergic phenotype in multiple populations of developing glutamatergic neurons.
Cholinergic/glutamatergic co-transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons: new mechanisms regulating striatal computation
Cortical ChAT+ neurons co-transmit acetylcholine and GABA in a target- and brain-region-specific manner
Regulation of cholinergic basal forebrain development, connectivity, and function by neurotrophin receptors
GABAergic inhibition in dual-transmission cholinergic and GABAergic striatal interneurons is abolished in Parkinson disease
Lateral inhibition by Martinotti interneurons is facilitated by cholinergic inputs in human and mouse neocortex
Basal Forebrain & Food Avoidance
Neurons in the basal forebrain play specific roles in regulating feeding. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the basal forebrain and food avoidance.
Basal Forebrain- Circuits
Basal forebrain is a region in the brain important for production of acetylcholine and is the major cholinergic output of the CNS. Discover the latest research on circuits in the basal forebrain here.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.