Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An overview of the immunopathology, serological diagnosis and management.

Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Abubakar Umar AnkaGholamreza Azizi


SARS-CoV-2 is a novel human coronavirus responsible for the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome are the major complications of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection can activate innate and adaptive immune responses and result in massive inflammatory responses later in the disease. These uncontrolled inflammatory responses may lead to local and systemic tissue damage. In patients with severe COVID-19, eosinopenia and lymphopenia with a severe reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells are a common feature. COVID-19 severity hinges on the development of cytokine storm characterized by elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most patients, along with the viral RNA, forming the basis for assays that aid in patient diagnosis. Elucidating the immunopathological outcomes due to COVID-19 could provide potential targets for immunotherapy and are important for choosing the best clinical management by consultants. Currently, along with standard supportive care, therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 treatment involve the use of antiviral agents ...Continue Reading


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