Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits variable symptom severity ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening, yet the relationship between severity and the humoral immune response is poorly understood. We examined antibody responses in 113 COVID-19 patients and found that severe cases resulting in intubation or death exhibited increased inflammatory markers, lymphopenia, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and high anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody levels. Although anti-RBD immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels generally correlated with neutralization titer, quantitation of neutralization potency revealed that high potency was a predictor of survival. In addition to neutralization of wild-type SARS-CoV-2, patient sera were also able to neutralize the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 mutant D614G, suggesting cross-protection from reinfection by either strain. However, SARS-CoV-2 sera generally lacked cross-neutralization to a highly homologous pre-emergent bat coronavirus, WIV1-CoV, which has not yet crossed the species barrier. These results highlight the importance of neutralizing humoral immunity on disease progression and the need to develop broadly protective interventions to prevent future coronavirus pandemics.
Interleukin 6 influences germinal center development and antibody production via a contribution of C3 complement component
Intracellular targeting signals contribute to localization of coronavirus spike proteins near the virus assembly site
Retroviruses pseudotyped with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein efficiently infect cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Identification of a critical neutralization determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus: importance for designing SARS vaccines
Serological responses in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection and cross-reactivity with human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, and NL63
Human monoclonal antibody combination against SARS coronavirus: synergy and coverage of escape mutants
The cytoplasmic tail of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein contains a novel endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal that binds COPI and promotes interaction with membrane protein
Mutagenesis of the transmembrane domain of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein: refinement of the requirements for SARS coronavirus cell entry
Development of a safe and convenient neutralization assay for rapid screening of influenza HA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
The contribution of the cytoplasmic retrieval signal of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to intracellular accumulation of S proteins and incorporation of S protein into virus-like particles
Anti-spike IgG causes severe acute lung injury by skewing macrophage responses during acute SARS-CoV infection
IL-33 enhances the kinetics and quality of the antibody response to a DNA and protein-based HIV-1 Env vaccine
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study
Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro.
Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody
Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients
Sex-specific clinical characteristics and prognosis of coronavirus disease-19 infection in Wuhan, China: A retrospective study of 168 severe patients
Protocol and Reagents for Pseudotyping Lentiviral Particles with SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein for Neutralization Assays.
A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies block COVID-19 virus binding to its receptor ACE2
Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial
Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals.
Isolation of potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and protection from disease in a small animal model.
Tracking Changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike: Evidence that D614G Increases Infectivity of the COVID-19 Virus.
Differential efficiencies to neutralize the novel mutants B.1.1.7 and 501Y.V2 by collected sera from convalescent COVID-19 patients and RBD nanoparticle-vaccinated rhesus macaques.
T Helper 17 Response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: A Type of Immune Response with Possible Therapeutic Implications.
Sustained neutralising antibodies in the Wuhan population suggest durable protection against SARS-CoV-2.
COVID-19 and HIV-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Emergence of Pathogen-Specific Immune Responses Adding Fuel to the Fire.
Rapid decline of neutralizing antibodies is associated with decay of IgM in adults recovered from mild COVID-19.
IFN-γ and TNF-α drive a CXCL10+ CCL2+ macrophage phenotype expanded in severe COVID-19 lungs and inflammatory diseases with tissue inflammation.
COVID-19-Importance for Patients on the Waiting List and after Kidney Transplantation-A Single Center Evaluation in 2020-2021.
Patient-blood management for COVID19 convalescent plasma therapy: relevance of affinity and donor-recipient differences in concentration of neutralizing antibodies.
An automated approach to determine antibody endpoint titers for COVID-19 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
A real-time and high-throughput neutralization test based on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus containing monomeric infrared fluorescent protein as reporter.
Long-Term Longitudinal Evaluation of Six Commercial Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG Antibodies against SARS CoV-2.
Persistence assessment of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody in recovered COVID-19 individuals and its association with clinical symptoms and disease severity: A prospective longitudinal cohort study.
Facile and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody based on a noncompetitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay in human serum samples.
Serological analysis reveals an imbalanced IgG subclass composition associated with COVID-19 disease severity.
Antibody Response to SARS-CoV-2 is Associated with Long-term Clinical Outcome in Patients with COVID-19: a Longitudinal Study.
Temporal maturation of neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent individuals improves potency and breadth to circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled in the absence of CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus macaques.
Disease Severity and Durability of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Antibody Response: A View Through the Lens of the Second Year of the Pandemic.
Colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) is an effective screening method for identifying detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.
SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses are lower in children and increase with age and time after infection.
Key Resources (RRID) Mentioned
Cell is a scientific journal publishing research across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences field. Discover the latest research from Cell here.