COVID-19: The Emerging Immunopathological Determinants for Recovery or Death.

Frontiers in Microbiology
Tanveer AhmadSyed Mansoor Ali

Abstract

Hyperactivation of the host immune system during infection by SARS-CoV-2 is the leading cause of death in COVID-19 patients. It is also evident that patients who develop mild/moderate symptoms and successfully recover display functional and well-regulated immune response. Whereas a delayed initial interferon response is associated with severe disease outcome and can be the tipping point towards immunopathological deterioration, often preceding death in COVID-19 patients. Further, adaptive immune response during COVID-19 is heterogeneous and poorly understood. At the same time, some studies suggest activated T and B cell response in severe and critically ill patients and the presence of SARS-CoV2-specific antibodies. Thus, understanding this problem and the underlying molecular pathways implicated in host immune function/dysfunction is imperative to devise effective therapeutic interventions. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the emerging immunopathological determinants and the mechanism of virus evasion by the host cell immune system. Using the knowledge gained from previous respiratory viruses and the emerging clinical and molecular findings on SARS-CoV-2, we have tried to provide a holistic understanding of the host in...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jul 9, 2021·Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy·Yunbao PanYirong Li
Aug 29, 2021·Pathogens·Anahí Maldonado-CabreraAna L Gallego-Hernández

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
ubiquitination
nuclear translocation
lavage
scRNA-seq
exome-sequencing
biopsies
flow cytometry
sc-RNA-seq
transgenic
transcription profiling

Clinical Trials Mentioned

NCT04350671
NCT04388709
NCT04268537
NCT04377334
NCT04351243
NCT04348448

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