COVID-19: The Immune Responses and Clinical Therapy Candidates

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sareh ZhandMark W Douglas

Abstract

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with rising numbers of patients worldwide, presents an urgent need for effective treatments. To date, there are no therapies or vaccines that are proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several potential candidates or repurposed drugs are under investigation, including drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and block infection. The most promising therapy to date is remdesivir, which is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for emergency use in adults and children hospitalized with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Herein we summarize the general features of SARS-CoV-2's molecular and immune pathogenesis and discuss available pharmacological strategies, based on our present understanding of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. Finally, we outline clinical trials currently in progress to investigate the efficacy of potential therapies for COVID-19.

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Citations

Aug 25, 2020·SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine·Savalan Babapoor-FarrokhranAman Amanullah
Dec 31, 2020·Diagnostics·Meysam RezaeiMajid Ebrahimi Warkiani
Nov 3, 2020·Clinical and Translational Medicine·Jiansheng HuangYoufa Wang
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Aug 17, 2021·Frontiers in Immunology·Jijing ShiJi-Yuan Zhang
Aug 17, 2021·Frontiers in Public Health·Emmanuelle LogetteHenry Markram

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
nuclear translocation
ubiquitination
glycosylation
PCR

Clinical Trials Mentioned

NCT04257656
NCT04303299
NCT04260594
NCT04255017
NCT04353284
NCT04308668
NCT04261426
NCT04315298
NCT04332107
NCT04336332

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