COVID-19 vaccines: Knowing the unknown.

European Journal of Immunology
Huibin LvChris K P Mok


Vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 has drawn attention around the globe due to the exploding pandemic. Although COVID-19 is caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, previous research on other coronavirus vaccines, such as FIPV, SARS, and MERS, has provided valuable information for the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccine. However, important knowledge gaps remain - some are specific to SARS-CoV-2, others are fundamental to immunology and vaccinology. Here, we discuss areas that need to be addressed for COVID-19 vaccine development, and what can be learned from examples of vaccine development in the past. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the research progress on COVID-19 has been remarkable. We are therefore optimistic about the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccine.


May 14, 2010·Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI·Stanley A Plotkin
Oct 30, 2010·Immunity·Robert L CoffmanRobert A Seder
Jan 8, 2013·Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics·Rebecca J Cox
Mar 30, 2013·Science·Joseph JardineWilliam R Schief
Mar 7, 2014·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jincun ZhaoStanley Perlman
Nov 10, 2015·Nature Medicine·Vineet D MenacheryRalph S Baric
Dec 25, 2015·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·A Katharina SimonAndrew McMichael
Feb 6, 2018·Nature Structural & Molecular Biology·Nicholas C Wu, Ian A Wilson
May 24, 2019·Frontiers in Immunology·Mark K Slifka, Ian J Amanna
Jul 13, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Katie L WinarskiSurender Khurana
Jul 19, 2019·Frontiers in Immunology·Tarra A Von Holle, M Anthony Moody
Aug 3, 2019·Science·Michelle C CrankUNKNOWN VRC 317 Study Team
Oct 12, 2019·Clinical and Experimental Dermatology·C QuinlanR Hughes
Feb 29, 2020·The New England Journal of Medicine·Wei-Jie GuanUNKNOWN China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19
Mar 25, 2020·Emerging Microbes & Infections·Jianhui NieYouchun Wang
Mar 28, 2020·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Jasper Fuk-Woo ChanKwok-Yung Yuen
Mar 29, 2020·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Chenguang ShenLei Liu
Apr 8, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Kai DuanXiaoming Yang
Apr 8, 2020·Cell Host & Microbe·Young-Il KimYoung Ki Choi
May 8, 2020·Nature·Linlin BaoChuan Qin
May 22, 2020·European Journal of Immunology·Virgil Schijns, Ed C Lavelle

❮ Previous
Next ❯


May 22, 2020·European Journal of Immunology·Virgil Schijns, Ed C Lavelle
Oct 27, 2020·Frontiers in Immunology·Morgan BrisseHinh Ly
Oct 30, 2020·Pharmacy : Journal of Pharmacy, Education and Practice·Lois LeeMary Bushell
Jun 6, 2021·International Journal of Dermatology·Robert S Shapiro
May 26, 2021·Scientific Reports·Poulami Majumder, Partha Pratim Ray
Jul 22, 2021·Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡·Larisa V Kordyukova, Andrey V Shanko
Jul 1, 2021·ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering·Agnieszka M Jastrzębska, Alexey S Vasilchenko

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.