May 19, 1995

CpG methylation and the binding of YY1 and ETS proteins to the Surf-1/Surf-2 bidirectional promoter

Gene
K Gaston, M Fried

Abstract

The divergently transcribed Surf-1 and Surf-2 genes are separated by a bi-directional, TATA-less promoter which contains three important factor-binding sites, Su1, Su2 and Su3. The transcription initiation factor YY1 binds to the Su1 site and stimulates transcription in the direction of Surf-1 and, to a lesser extent, Surf-2. Members of the ETS family of transcription factors bind to the Su2 and Su3 sites. Here we show that in transient transfection assays, transcription in both the Surf-1 and the Surf-2 direction is severely reduced by CpG methylation. Although the Su1 site contains three CpG dinucleotides, the binding of YY1 is not affected by CpG methylation. In contrast, the binding of two ETS factors (ETS-2 and PEA-3) to the Su2 site (which also contains three CpG dinucleotides) is totally abolished by CpG methylation. Finally, we show that methylation of a single C within the Su2 site is sufficient to prevent ETS factor binding.

  • References4
  • Citations18

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Zinc Fingers
Transfection
YY1 protein, human
Protein Methylation
Proteins, Recombinant DNA
cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine
Gene Products, Protein
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
Promoter
Cell Nucleus

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Coronavirus Protein Structures

Deciphering and comparing the proteins of different coronaviruses forms a basis for understanding SARS-CoV-2 evolution and virus-receptor interactions. This feed follows studies analyzing the structures of coronavirus proteins, thereby revealing potential drug target sites.

DDX3X Syndrome

DDX3X syndrome is caused by a spontaneous mutation at conception that primarily affects girls due to its location on the X-chromosome. DDX3X syndrome has been linked to intellectual disabilities, seizures, autism, low muscle tone, brain abnormalities, and slower physical developments. Here is the latest research.

ALS: Stress Granules

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates within motor neurons. TDP-43 is an ALS-linked protein that is known to regulate splicing and storage of specific mRNAs into stress granules, which have been implicated in formation of ALS protein aggregates. Here is the latest research.

Fusion Oncoproteins in Childhood Cancers

This feed explores the function of fusion oncoproteins in specific childhood cancers, including those from racial/ethnic minority and underserved groups, and to provide preclinical assessment of potential therapeutics and how fusion oncoproteins influence gene expression to perturb normal cellular programs to block lineage differentiation and development

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Mitotic-exit networks with cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the highly regulated process that physically separates daughter and mother cells in late mitosis. The mitotic-exit network (MEN), the signalling pathway that drives mitotic exit, directly regulates cytokinesis. Discover the latest research on mitotic-exit networks with cytokinesis here.

DNA Replication Origin

DNA replication is initiated as specific gene sequences, called origins, that function to start DNA replication. Pre-replication complexes are assembled at these origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These sequences allow for targeted activation or deactivation of replication. Discover the latest research on DNA replication origins here.