Craniofacial Morphology in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Turner Syndrome

Diagnostics
Dorota Wójcik, Iwona Beń-Skowronek

Abstract

The review aims to collect and demonstrate recent knowledge about craniofacial morphology in growth hormone (GH)-deficient children and children with Turner syndrome. The review describes also the effects of growth hormone treatment on craniofacial morphology of children with growth hormone deficiency and Turner syndrome. Regardless of the disorder it accompanies, short stature is associated with similar craniofacial features characteristic of all short-statured children. Characteristic craniofacial features involve lesser dimensions of the cranial base and mandibular length, proportionately smaller posterior than anterior facial height, retrognathic face, and posterior rotation of the mandible. We also analyze orthodontic treatment in children affected by disorders associated with GH deficiency or provided with growth hormone treatment in the aspect of craniofacial growth. Recent publications show also the connection between growth hormone receptor polymorphism and craniofacial growth. Specialists and orthodontists treating short-statured children must be aware of the results of studies on craniofacial morphology and educate themselves on the topic of craniofacial growth in children with short stature. Moreover, knowledge of t...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
hormone replacement therapy
pharmacotherapy

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