In many regions of the developing brain, neuronal circuits undergo defined phases of enhanced plasticity, termed critical periods. Work in the rodent visual cortex has led to important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the timing of the critical period. Although there is little doubt that the maturation of specific inhibitory circuits plays a key role in the opening of the critical period in the visual cortex, it is less clear what puts an end to it. In this review, we describe the established mechanisms and point out where more experimental work is needed. We also show that plasticity in the visual cortex is present well before, and long after, the peak of the critical period.
Interstitial cells of the adult neocortical white matter are the remnant of the early generated subplate neuron population
Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: dark rearing and monocular deprivation
Blockade of NMDA receptors during song model exposure impairs song development in juvenile zebra finches
Plasticity of geniculocortical afferents following brief or prolonged monocular occlusion in the cat
Differential synaptic localization of two major gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunits on hippocampal pyramidal cells
IPSPs modulate spike backpropagation and associated [Ca2+]i changes in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons
Plasticity in fast synaptic inhibition of adult oxytocin neurons caused by switch in GABA(A) receptor subunit expression
CRE-mediated gene transcription in neocortical neuronal plasticity during the developmental critical period
Restoration of ocular dominance plasticity mediated by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in adult visual cortex
BDNF regulates the maturation of inhibition and the critical period of plasticity in mouse visual cortex
Input-dependent synaptic targeting of alpha(2)-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors in synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells of the rat
Regeneration of CNS axons back to their target following treatment of adult rat brain with chondroitinase ABC
Electrical and chemical synapses among parvalbumin fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in adult mouse neocortex
Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling
Reduced ocular dominance plasticity and long-term potentiation in the developing visual cortex of protein kinase A RII alpha mutant mice
Requirement for the RIIbeta isoform of PKA, but not calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, in visual cortical plasticity
A semi-persistent adult ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex is stabilized by activated CREB
Dendritic spine dynamics are regulated by monocular deprivation and extracellular matrix degradation
Reduced cortical activity due to a shift in the balance between excitation and inhibition in a mouse model of Rett syndrome
Antagonistic interaction between IGF and Wnt/JNK signaling in convergent extension in Xenopus embryo
Composition of perineuronal nets in the adult rat cerebellum and the cellular origin of their components
Subplate neurons regulate maturation of cortical inhibition and outcome of ocular dominance plasticity
Developmental downregulation of histone posttranslational modifications regulates visual cortical plasticity
Environmental enrichment in adulthood promotes amblyopia recovery through a reduction of intracortical inhibition
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediates the effects of enriched environment (EE) on visual cortical development
Homeostatic regulation of eye-specific responses in visual cortex during ocular dominance plasticity
Activity-dependent PSA expression regulates inhibitory maturation and onset of critical period plasticity
Cannabinoid receptor blockade reveals parallel plasticity mechanisms in different layers of mouse visual cortex
Experience-dependent transfer of Otx2 homeoprotein into the visual cortex activates postnatal plasticity
Reduced responsiveness to long-term monocular deprivation of parvalbumin neurons assessed by c-Fos staining in rat visual cortex
The ratio of NR2A/B NMDA receptor subunits determines the qualities of ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex
Difference in binocularity and ocular dominance plasticity between GABAergic and excitatory cortical neurons
The maturation of GABAergic transmission in visual cortex requires endocannabinoid-mediated LTD of inhibitory inputs during a critical period
Epigenetic treatments of adult rats promote recovery from visual acuity deficits induced by long-term monocular deprivation
Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein and Nogo negatively regulate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity
A refractory period for rejuvenating GABAergic synaptic transmission and ocular dominance plasticity with dark exposure.
Loss of sensory input causes rapid structural changes of inhibitory neurons in adult mouse visual cortex
Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms are required for juvenile, but not adult, ocular dominance plasticity
Environmental enrichment extends ocular dominance plasticity into adulthood and protects from stroke-induced impairments of plasticity
Blocking PirB up-regulates spines and functional synapses to unlock visual cortical plasticity and facilitate recovery from amblyopia
Early- and late-born parvalbumin basket cell subpopulations exhibiting distinct regulation and roles in learning
Environmental enrichment preserved lifelong ocular dominance plasticity, but did not improve visual abilities
Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain
Metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling is required for NMDA receptor-dependent ocular dominance plasticity and LTD in visual cortex
MeCP2 regulates the timing of critical period plasticity that shapes functional connectivity in primary visual cortex
A switch from inter-ocular to inter-hemispheric suppression following monocular deprivation in the rat visual cortex
Creb is modulated in the mouse superior colliculus in developmental and experimentally-induced models of plasticity
Dark rearing alters the normal development of spatiotemporal response properties but not of contrast detection threshold in mouse retinal ganglion cells
Proteolytic regulation of synaptic plasticity in the mouse primary visual cortex: analysis of matrix metalloproteinase 9 deficient mice
Activity-dependent NPAS4 expression and the regulation of gene programs underlying plasticity in the central nervous system
The disorganized visual cortex in reelin-deficient mice is functional and allows for enhanced plasticity
GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors compensate for the inhibitory control of synaptic plasticity during the early critical period in the rat visual cortex
Interneuron epigenomes during the critical period of cortical plasticity: Implications for schizophrenia
The chemorepulsive axon guidance protein semaphorin3A is a constituent of perineuronal nets in the adult rodent brain
Glutamatergic receptors at developing synapses: the role of GluN3A-containing NMDA receptors and GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors
Sight restoration after congenital blindness does not reinstate alpha oscillatory activity in humans
Differential maturation of vesicular glutamate and GABA transporter expression in the mouse auditory forebrain during the first weeks of hearing
LPA signaling initiates schizophrenia-like brain and behavioral changes in a mouse model of prenatal brain hemorrhage
Modulation of GABAergic transmission in development and neurodevelopmental disorders: investigating physiology and pathology to gain therapeutic perspectives
Altered GABAergic markers, increased binocularity and reduced plasticity in the visual cortex of Engrailed-2 knockout mice
Nogo Receptor 1 Limits Ocular Dominance Plasticity but not Turnover of Axonal Boutons in a Model of Amblyopia
A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements
Selective Maturation of Temporal Dynamics of Intracortical Excitatory Transmission at the Critical Period Onset
BDNF Val66 Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation
Altered Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 Function Affects the Development of Cortical Parvalbumin Interneurons by an Indirect Mechanism
Mir-132/212 is required for maturation of binocular matching of orientation preference and depth perception
Early life stress perturbs the function of microglia in the developing rodent brain: New insights and future challenges
Neocortical developmental analysis of vasculature and their growth factors offer new insight into fragile X syndrome abnormalities
Analysis of experience-regulated transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development reveals spatiotemporal dynamics
Environmental enrichment accelerates ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex whereas transfer to standard cages resulted in a rapid loss of increased plasticity
Extracellular matrix inhibits structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines in the adult visual cortex
Molecular mechanisms at the basis of plasticity in the developing visual cortex: epigenetic processes and gene programs
Parvalbumin-expressing basket-cell network plasticity induced by experience regulates adult learning
Uncovering a critical period of synaptic imbalance during postnatal development of the rat visual cortex: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Neural activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits of juvenile songbirds encodes performance during goal-directed learning
Enhancement of GluN2B Subunit-Containing NMDA Receptor Underlies Serotonergic Regulation of Long-Term Potentiation after Critical Period in the Rat Visual Cortex
Input-specific maturation of NMDAR-mediated transmission onto parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex
Keratan sulfate (KS)-proteoglycans and neuronal regulation in health and disease: the importance of KS-glycodynamics and interactive capability with neuroregulatory ligands
GluA4 Dependent Plasticity Mechanisms Contribute to Developmental Synchronization of the CA3-CA1 Circuitry in the Hippocampus
Multiple Morphological Factors Underlie Experience-Dependent Cross-Modal Plasticity in the Developing Sensory Cortices
Depletion of microglia in developing cortical circuits reveals its critical role in glutamatergic synapse development, functional connectivity, and critical period plasticity
5-HTR2A and 5-HTR3A but not 5-HTR1A antagonism impairs the cross-modal reactivation of deprived visual cortex in adulthood
Cross-Talk of Low-Level Sensory and High-Level Cognitive Processing: Development, Mechanisms, and Relevance for Cross-Modal Abilities of the Brain
Lack of Cdkl5 Disrupts the Organization of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses and Parvalbumin Interneurons in the Primary Visual Cortex
Structural maturation of cortical perineuronal nets and their perforating synapses revealed by superresolution imaging
Dynamic Regulation of Synaptopodin and the Axon Initial Segment in Retinal Ganglion Cells During Postnatal Development
The Extracellular Environment of the CNS: Influence on Plasticity, Sprouting, and Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury
Early Loss of Vision Results in Extensive Reorganization of Plasticity-Related Receptors and Alterations in Hippocampal Function That Extend Through Adulthood
Fast Recovery of the Amblyopic Eye Acuity of Kittens following Brief Exposure to Total Darkness Depends on the Fellow Eye
Experience-dependent structural plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites of layer 2/3 cells in developing visual cortex
Assessing the requirements of prenatal UBE3A expression for rescue of behavioral phenotypes in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome
Refractive adaptation and efficacy of occlusion therapy in untreated amblyopic patients aged 12 to 40 years
Systematic Analysis of Environmental Chemicals That Dysregulate Critical Period Plasticity-Related Gene Expression Reveals Common Pathways That Mimic Immune Response to Pathogen.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reverses reduced excitability of rat visual cortex induced by dark rearing during early critical period.
Dysregulation of excitatory neural firing replicates physiological and functional changes in aging visual cortex.
Astrocytes as a target for Nogo-A and implications for synapse formation in vitro and in a model of acute demyelination.
Endocannabinoids and cortical plasticity: CB1R as a possible regulator of the excitation/inhibition balance in health and disease
A Primer on Constructing Plasticity Phenotypes to Classify Experience-Dependent Development of the Visual Cortex
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research.
Autism: Treatment Targets
The absence of effective treatments for autism are due to the high clinical and genetic heterogeneity between affected individuals, restricted knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and the lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of more homogenous biological subgroups is therefore essential for the development of novel treatments based on the molecular mechanisms underpinning autism and autism spectrum disorders. Find the latest research on autism treatment targets here.
Astrocytes & Neurodegeneration
Astrocytes are important for the health and function of the central nervous system. When these cells stop functioning properly, either through gain of function or loss of homeostatic controls, neurodegenerative diseases can occur. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and neurodegeneration.
Here is the latest research on barrel cortex, a region of somatosensory and motor corticies in the brain, which are used by animals that rely on whiskers for world exploration.
Central Nervous System Vasculitis
Central nervous system vasculitis is a newly recognized inflammatory brain disease, which may develop as a primary condition, or secondary to an underlying systemic disease. Here is the latest research.
Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Brain
Cell adhesion molecules found on cell surface help cells bind with other cells or the extracellular matrix to maintain structure and function. Here is the latest research on their role in the brain.
Astrocytes are glial cells that support the blood-brain barrier, facilitate neurotransmission, provide nutrients to neurons, and help repair damaged nervous tissues. Here is the latest research.
Adhesion Molecules in Health and Disease
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.
Calcium & Bioenergetics
Bioenergetic processes, including cellular respiration and photosynthesis, concern the transformation of energy by cells. Here is the latest research on the role of calcium in bioenergetics.