Current Knowledge on the Background, Pathophysiology and Treatment of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia-Literature Review.

Journal of Clinical Medicine
Michał Jan HutnyAgnieszka Gorzkowska


Levodopa remains the primary drug for controlling motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease through the whole course, but over time, complications develop in the form of dyskinesias, which gradually become more frequent and severe. These abnormal, involuntary, hyperkinetic movements are mainly characteristic of the ON phase and are triggered by excess exogenous levodopa. They may also occur during the OFF phase, or in both phases. Over the past 10 years, the issue of levodopa-induced dyskinesia has been the subject of research into both the substrate of this pathology and potential remedial strategies. The purpose of the present study was to review the results of recent research on the background and treatment of dyskinesia. To this end, databases were reviewed using a search strategy that included both relevant keywords related to the topic and appropriate filters to limit results to English language literature published since 2010. Based on the selected papers, the current state of knowledge on the morphological, functional, genetic and clinical features of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, as well as pharmacological, genetic treatment and other therapies such as deep brain stimulation, are described.

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