Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) are iatrogenic consequences of antidopaminergic drugs. Both are particularly prevalent among the elderly and those with dementia. However, despite their prevalence, these disorders are often overlooked. Both entities share risk factors, physiopathological mechanisms and, to some degree, therapeutic approaches. Withdrawing the causal agent, reducing the dose or switching to a less potent antidopaminergic drug should be the first therapeutic options. Here we review both entities and emerging therapies including the recently approved drugs deutetrabenazine and valbenazine. We discuss relevant aspects for clinical practice such as new diagnostic techniques and the latest advances in the understanding of DIP and TD.
Aging produces a specific pattern of striatal dopamine loss: implications for the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease
Spontaneous orofacial movements induced in rodents by very long-term neuroleptic drug administration: phenomenology, pathophysiology and putative relationship to tardive dyskinesia
D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explains extrapyramidal side effects. A SPECT study
Dopamine D3-receptor gene variant and susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients
Intermittent neuroleptic treatment and risk for tardive dyskinesia: Curaçao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study III
Lower risk for tardive dyskinesia associated with second-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review of 1-year studies
A single-blind, randomized trial comparing quetiapine and haloperidol in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia
Ethnicity and the course of tardive dyskinesia in outpatients presenting to the motor disorders clinic at the Maryland psychiatric research center
Prevalence of movement disorders in men and women aged 50-89 years (Bruneck Study cohort): a population-based study
Risk of extrapyramidal syndrome in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics: a population-based study
Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and polymorphic variations in COMT, DRD2, CYP1A2 and MnSOD genes: a meta-analysis of pharmacogenetic interactions
Clinical features and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in drug-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease
Incidence of tardive dyskinesia with atypical versus conventional antipsychotic medications: a prospective cohort study
Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in the Arosa Island (Spain): a community-based door-to-door survey
Genetic correlates of medical comorbidity associated with schizophrenia and treatment with antipsychotics
Globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation for tardive dyskinesia: case report and review of the literature
Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology
Differentiating drug-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease: an update on non-motor symptoms and investigations
Effect of Deutetrabenazine on Chorea Among Patients With Huntington Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial
KINECT 3: A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Valbenazine for Tardive Dyskinesia
Deutetrabenazine for treatment of involuntary movements in patients with tardive dyskinesia (AIM-TD): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release capsules for levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (EASE LID 3)
Early-onset drug-induced parkinsonism after exposure to offenders implies nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction
The Effects of Valbenazine in Participants with Tardive Dyskinesia: Results of the 1-Year KINECT 3 Extension Study
Antipsychotic reduction and/or cessation and antipsychotics as specific treatments for tardive dyskinesia
Updating the recommendations for treatment of tardive syndromes: A systematic review of new evidence and practical treatment algorithm
Substantia Nigra Echogenicity Predicts Response to Drug Withdrawal in Suspected Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
Clozapine in Parkinsonian Rest Tremor: A Review of Outcomes, Adverse Reactions, and Possible Mechanisms of Action
Drug-Induced Movement Disorders and Its Associated Factors Among Patients Attending Treatment at Public Hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia
Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.
Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare rheumatic disease that affects children. Symptoms include joint pain, but also fevers and skin rashes. Here is the latest on this disease.
Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks
The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.
Central Pontine Myelinolysis
Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.
Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are a group of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders with prenatal onset, atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, microcephaly, variable neocortical atrophy and severe mental and motor impairments. Here is the latest research on pontocerebellar hypoplasia.
Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis
Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease that occurs in individuals that suffer repetitive brain trauma. Discover the latest research on traumatic encephalopathy here.