Jul 29, 2008

Cytokine regulation and pain. Results of experimental and clinical research

Der Schmerz
Nurcan Uçeyler, C Sommer


Cytokines are soluble peptides and proteins that are predominantly produced and secreted by immune cells. In numerous animal experiments the endogenous increase or application of exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines is associated with pain behavior. In turn, cytokine inhibitors reduce such pain behavior in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Several clinical studies point out that cytokines are also important in different human pain states. Several chronic pain syndromes are associated with systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles. In some pain syndromes these pro-inflammatory profiles are accompanied by a lack of analgesic anti-inflammatory cytokines. Numerous case reports and open clinical studies, but also some controlled trials show successful analgesic treatment using cytokine inhibitors. The following review article summarizes the main data of animal experiments and clinical trials concerning the role of cytokines in pain and the potential importance of cytokine modulation in pain treatment.

  • References90
  • Citations5


Mentioned in this Paper

Visual Analog Pain Scale
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Analgesic brand of acetaminophen-phenyltoloxamine
Nervous System Structure
Chronic Pain Syndrome

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.