Cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitic wasp Encarsia inaron: disentangling the roles of Cardinium and Wolbachia symbionts

J A WhiteMartha S Hunter


Many bacterial endosymbionts of insects are capable of manipulating their host's reproduction for their own benefit. The most common strategy of manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), in which embryonic mortality results from matings between uninfected females and infected males. In contrast, embryos develop normally in infected females, whether or not their mate is infected, and infected progeny are produced. In this way, the proportion of infected females increases in the insect population, thereby promoting the spread of the maternally inherited bacteria. However, what happens when multiple endosymbionts inhabit the same host? The parasitoid wasp Encarsia inaron is naturally infected with two unrelated endosymbionts, Cardinium and Wolbachia, both of which have been documented to cause CI in other insects. Doubly infected wasps show the CI phenotype. We differentially cured E. inaron of each endosymbiont, and crossed hosts of different infection status to determine whether either or both bacteria caused the observed CI phenotype in this parasitoid, and whether the two symbionts interacted within their common host. We found that Wolbachia caused CI in E. inaron, but Cardinium did not. We did not find evidence that C...Continue Reading


Nov 1, 1989·Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society·A E Douglas
Mar 12, 1998·Nature·Hervé Merçot, D Poinsot
Sep 15, 1998·Journal of Theoretical Biology·S A Frank
Nov 5, 1999·Annual Review of Microbiology·Richard StouthamerGregory D D Hurst
Feb 28, 2002·Molecular Biology and Evolution·Nathan LoClaudio Bandi
Sep 11, 2003·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Andrew R WeeksRichard Stouthamer
Jan 1, 1997·Annual Review of Entomology·John H Werren
Jun 11, 2004·Molecular Ecology·Einat Zchori-Fein, Steve J Perlman
May 25, 2006·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Kerry M OliverMartha S Hunter
Nov 23, 2006·Journal of Theoretical Biology·Emilie VautrinFabrice Vavre
Jul 25, 2007·Bulletin of Entomological Research·Elad ChielMurad Ghanim
Nov 6, 2007·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·Markus Riegler, Scott L O'Neill
Dec 1, 2007·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·John P McCutcheon, Nancy A Moran
Feb 13, 2008·Molecular Ecology·Olivier DuronJan Engelstädter
Mar 4, 2008·FEMS Microbiology Letters·Kirsten HilgenboeckerJohn H Werren
Apr 24, 2008·Genetics·Sofia ZabalouKostas Bourtzis
Oct 1, 1994·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Michael Turelli


Mar 2, 2012·BMC Microbiology·Thijs MachtelinckxPatrick De Clercq
Aug 6, 2013·Journal of Insect Science·Oliver Y MartinMarco V Bernasconi
Dec 29, 2009·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Aggeliki Saridaki, Kostas Bourtzis
May 18, 2012·Journal of Evolutionary Biology·A Stefanini, Olivier Duron
Jul 24, 2014·Environmental Microbiology·Mathieu SicardChristine Braquart-Varnier
Jul 25, 2015·Journal of Insect Science·Krzysztof KrawczykAleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska
May 14, 2016·Planta·Beata Wielkopolan, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska
May 20, 2006·PLoS Pathogens·S R BordensteinJennifer J Wernegreen
Feb 10, 2017·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Duong T NguyenMarkus Riegler
Feb 2, 2018·FEMS Microbiology Ecology·Flore ZéléSara Magalhães
Jan 8, 2020·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Jessamyn I Perlmutter, S R Bordenstein
Jul 9, 2020·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Laura C RosenwaldJennifer A White
Dec 29, 2016·PloS One·Huipeng PanYoujun Zhang
Nov 22, 2018·Frontiers in Microbiology·Amanda M V BrownDee R Denver
Dec 8, 2019·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Tong-Pu LiXiao-Yue Hong

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

KIF1A Associated Neurological Disorder

KIF1A associated neurological disorder (KAND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene. KAND may present with a wide range and severity of symptoms including stiff or weak leg muscles, low muscle tone, a lack of muscle coordination and balance, and intellectual disability. Find the latest research on KAND here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.