D+: Software for High-Resolution Hierarchical Modeling of Solution X-Ray Scattering from Complex Structures

Avi GinsburgUri Raviv


In this paper, we present our new computer program, D+, which uses the reciprocal-grid (RG) algorithm to efficiently compute X-ray scattering curves from solutions of complex structures at high-resolution. Structures are defined in hierarchical trees in which subunits can be represented by geometric or atomic models. Repeating subunits can be docked into their assembly symmetries, describing their locations and orientations in space. The scattering amplitude of the entire structure can be calculated by computing the amplitudes of the basic subunits on 3D reciprocal-space grids, moving up in the hierarchy, calculating the RGs of the larger structures, and by repeating this process for all the leaves and nodes of the tree. For very large structures, a Hybrid method can be used to avoid numerical artifacts. In the Hybrid method, only grids of smaller subunits are summed and used as subunits in a direct computation of the scattering amplitude. D+ can accurately analyze both small- and wide-angle solution X-ray scattering data. We present how D+ applies the RG algorithm, accounts for rotations and translations of subunits, processes atomic models, accounts for the contribution of the solvent as well as the solvation layer of complex...Continue Reading

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