Deciphering SARS-CoV-2 Virologic and Immunologic Features.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Grégorie LebeauPhilippe Gasque

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 and its associated pathology, COVID-19, have been of particular concerns these last months due to the worldwide burden they represent. The number of cases requiring intensive care being the critical point in this epidemic, a better understanding of the pathophysiology leading to these severe cases is urgently needed. Tissue lesions can be caused by the pathogen or can be driven by an overwhelmed immune response. Focusing on SARS-CoV-2, we and others have observed that this virus can trigger indeed an immune response that can be dysregulated in severe patients and leading to further injury to multiple organs. The purpose of the review is to bring to light the current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 virologic and immunologic features. Thus, we address virus biology, life cycle, tropism for many organs and how ultimately it will affect several host biological and physiological functions, notably the immune response. Given that therapeutic avenues are now highly warranted, we also discuss the immunotherapies available to manage the infection and the clinical outcomes.

References

Jul 1, 1989·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·P B SethnaD A Brian
Aug 1, 1994·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·A Casadevall, M D Scharff
Apr 7, 1998·Immunity·M K SlifkaR Ahmed
May 17, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·T PushkarskyM Bukrinsky
May 25, 2002·Kidney International·Gunter WolfFriedrich Thaiss
Sep 5, 2002·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Dennis R Burton
Jan 18, 2003·Current Hypertension Reports·Marta Ruiz-OrtegaJesús Egido
Sep 12, 2003·Trends in Immunology·Arturo Casadevall, Liise-anne Pirofski
Sep 13, 2003·BMC Medical Genetics·Marie LinChun-Hsiung Huang
May 8, 2004·Seminars in Immunology·Shane Crotty, Rafi Ahmed
Jun 25, 2004·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Y O Y SooJ J Y Sung
Sep 10, 2004·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·William G GlassPhilip M Murphy
Oct 22, 2004·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Scott A JeffersKathryn V Holmes
Dec 21, 2004·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·P-R HsuehP-C Yang
Feb 1, 2005·Virology·Pavel V BaranovMichael T Howard
Feb 3, 2005·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Zhinan ChenPing Zhu
Mar 24, 2005·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Yunfeng ChengRaymond S M Wong
Jul 8, 2005·Nature·Yumiko ImaiJosef M Penninger
Aug 24, 2005·Virology Journal·Martin J VincentStuart T Nichol
Sep 16, 2005·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Jun XuYong Jiang
Sep 27, 2005·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·Kuo-Ming YehFeng-Yee Chang
Dec 3, 2005·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Stanley Perlman, Ajai A Dandekar
Jun 20, 2006·Clinical Immunology : the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society·Li-Tao YangChang-You Wu
Aug 1, 2006·Advances in Virus Research·Paul S Masters
Sep 15, 2007·The New England Journal of Medicine·Wu-Chun CaoJan H Richardus
Feb 9, 2008·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Li-Ping WuGuo-Dong Liang
May 21, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Shiori HagaYukihito Ishizaka
May 5, 2009·American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology·Hong Peng JiaPaul B McCray
May 21, 2009·European Journal of Clinical Investigation·G Y OuditJ Butany
Feb 12, 2010·Journal of Virology·Akira WatanabeChieko Kai
Mar 30, 2010·Clinical and Experimental Immunology·V YurchenkoM Bukrinsky
Jul 29, 2010·Mayo Clinic Proceedings·Chakradhar VenkataBekele Afessa
May 18, 2011·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Fang TangWu-Chun Cao

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Dec 29, 2020·Reviews in Medical Virology·Siti Fathiah MasreSayyidi Hamzi Abdul Raub
Jul 3, 2021·Viruses·Ahlam ChaqrounEvelyne Schvoerer
Aug 28, 2021·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Kwang-Eun ChoiNam Sook Kang

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned

BETA
X-ray
electron microscopy
bronchoalveolar lavage
biopsies
deubiquitination
glycosylation

Software Mentioned

TMPRSS2
ACE2

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Blastomycosis

Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.