Deer, wolves, and people: costs, benefits and challenges of living together.

Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Jean-Louis MartinDonald M Waller

Abstract

Human-driven species annihilations loom as a major crisis. However the recovery of deer and wolf populations in many parts of the northern hemisphere has resulted in conflicts and controversies rather than in relief. Both species interact in complex ways with their environment, each other, and humans. We review these interactions in the context of the ecological and human costs and benefits associated with these species. We integrate scattered information to widen our perspective on the nature and perception of these costs and benefits and how they link to each other and ongoing controversies regarding how we manage deer and wolf populations. After revisiting the ecological roles deer and wolves play in contemporary ecosystems, we explore how they interact, directly and indirectly, with human groups including farmers, foresters, shepherds, and hunters. Interactions with deer and wolves generate various axes of tension, posing both ecological and sociological challenges. Resolving these tensions and conflicts requires that we address key questions using integrative approaches: what are the ecological consequences of deer and wolf recovery? How do they influence each other? What are the social and socio-ecological consequences of...Continue Reading

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Citations

May 15, 2020·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Hannes J KönigAdam T Ford
May 26, 2021·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jennifer L RaynorDominic P Parker

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