Exosomes are vesicles that can be secreted by many types of cell and released into the extracellular space. Studies have found that tumor derived exosomes (TEXs) can promote tumor growth and metastasis, as well as inhibit immune response through transferring their genetic information to the recipient cells. Given their functions in tumor progression, TEXs are considered as promising biomarkers for early detection of human malignancy. Dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen presenting cells, can induce tumor-specific T cell immune responses in carcinogenesis. Growing evidences have demonstrated that the matured DCs induced by TEXs exhibit enhanced anti-tumor effects that may be applied for cancer immunotherapy. Thus in this review, according to the previous studies, we summarized the effects of DCs loaded with TEXs in cancer immunotherapy.
Eradication of established murine tumors using a novel cell-free vaccine: dendritic cell-derived exosomes
Molecular characterization of dendritic cell-derived exosomes. Selective accumulation of the heat shock protein hsc73
Proteomic analysis of dendritic cell-derived exosomes: a secreted subcellular compartment distinct from apoptotic vesicles
MHC class I-mediated exogenous antigen presentation by exosomes secreted from immature and mature bone marrow derived dendritic cells
Exosomes as potent cell-free peptide-based vaccine. I. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes transfer functional MHC class I/peptide complexes to dendritic cells
Vaccination of metastatic melanoma patients with autologous dendritic cell (DC) derived-exosomes: results of thefirst phase I clinical trial
Human colorectal cancer cells induce T-cell death through release of proapoptotic microvesicles: role in immune escape
Intradermal vaccination of dendritic cell-derived exosomes is superior to a subcutaneous one in the induction of antitumor immunity
Mature dendritic cells pulsed with exosomes stimulate efficient cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and antitumour immunity
A vaccine based on exosomes secreted by a dendritic cell line confers protection against T. gondii infection in syngeneic and allogeneic mice
Intercellular transfer of the oncogenic receptor EGFRvIII by microvesicles derived from tumour cells
Dendritic cells release HLA-B-associated transcript-3 positive exosomes to regulate natural killer function
A phase II study of adoptive immunotherapy using dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers.
Anti-tumour effects of exosomes in combination with cyclophosphamide and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid
Characterization of exosome-like vesicles released from human tracheobronchial ciliated epithelium: a possible role in innate defense.
Dendritic cell-derived exosomes promote natural killer cell activation and proliferation: a role for NKG2D ligands and IL-15Ralpha.
Tumor-derived microvesicles promote regulatory T cell expansion and induce apoptosis in tumor-reactive activated CD8+ T lymphocytes.
Hypoxic tumor cell modulates its microenvironment to enhance angiogenic and metastatic potential by secretion of proteins and exosomes.
Let-7 microRNA family is selectively secreted into the extracellular environment via exosomes in a metastatic gastric cancer cell line
Blast-derived microvesicles in sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia suppress natural killer cell function via membrane-associated transforming growth factor-beta1.
Tumor-derived exosomes confer antigen-specific immunosuppression in a murine delayed-type hypersensitivity model.
Melanoma exosomes educate bone marrow progenitor cells toward a pro-metastatic phenotype through MET.
Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells pulsed with an adjuvant that stimulates NKT cells is an effective treatment for glioma
Dendritic cell exosomes directly kill tumor cells and activate natural killer cells via TNF superfamily ligands
Immune modulation of T-cell and NK (natural killer) cell activities by TEXs (tumour-derived exosomes)
Exosomes from murine-derived GL26 cells promote glioblastoma tumor growth by reducing number and function of CD8+T cells
Tumor cell-derived exosome-targeted dendritic cells stimulate stronger CD8+ CTL responses and antitumor immunities
Induction and transport of Wnt 5a during macrophage-induced malignant invasion is mediated by two types of extracellular vesicles
Tumour-derived exosomes as antigen delivery carriers in dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for malignant mesothelioma
Reversal of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by nanoparticle-based activation of immune-associated cells.
Extracellular Vesicles from the Protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii : Their Role in Pathogenesis, Environmental Adaptation and Potential Applications
Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles: molecular parcels that enable regulation of the immune response in cancer
Paeonol Attenuated Inflammatory Response of Endothelial Cells via Stimulating Monocytes-Derived Exosomal MicroRNA-223
Tumor-derived exosomes: the next generation of promising cell-free vaccines in cancer immunotherapy.
Immunotherapy Based on Dendritic Cell-Targeted/-Derived Extracellular Vesicles-A Novel Strategy for Enhancement of the Anti-tumor Immune Response
Immunotherapy for the treatment of canine transmissible venereal tumor based in dendritic cells pulsed with tumoral exosomes
Exosomes from 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy-treated squamous carcinoma cells promote dendritic cell maturation
Ancient Evolutionary Origin and Properties of Universally Produced Natural Exosomes Contribute to Their Therapeutic Superiority Compared to Artificial Nanoparticles.
Dendritic cells loaded with exosomes derived from cancer stem cell-enriched spheroids as a potential immunotherapeutic option.
Tumor-Derived Exosomes Enriched by miRNA-124 Promote Anti-tumor Immune Response in CT-26 Tumor-Bearing Mice.
The roles of tumor-derived exosomes in altered differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells.
Cancer vaccines are vaccines that either treat existing cancer or prevent development of a cancer.