May 12, 2005

Dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide in hospitals during preparation, nursing and cleaning activities

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Wouter FransmanHans Kromhout


To determine levels of potential and actual dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP) during performance of oncology-related tasks in hospitals and to investigate the relationship with potential sources and surface contamination levels of CP. Dermal exposure to CP was determined for tasks with potential exposure to CP: preparation of CP, decanting of patients' urine, washing of the patient, removal of bed sheets of treated patients and cleaning of patients' toilets on oncology wards. Exposure was assessed by the collection of nitrile and latex protective medical gloves (potential exposure), washing of hands (actual exposure), from cotton pads attached to (un)covered forearms (potential or actual exposure) and a wipe sample of the forehead (actual exposure). Bulk samples (i.e. application fluids and patients' excreta) and possible contact surfaces were monitored to assess the amount of CP available for dermal exposure. Pharmacy technicians, oncology nurses and cleaning personnel showed actual and potential dermal exposure to CP during performance of their daily duties. Exposure occurred predominantly on the hands and sporadically on the forehead and forearms. Although all nurses used gloves during handling of patients' urine and ...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Skin Absorption
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Oncology Field
Body Fluids
Excretory Function
Occupational Exposure

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