Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of cosalane, a novel anti-HIV agent which inhibits multiple features of virus reproduction
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
M CushmanW G Rice
Cosalane (3), a novel anti-HIV agent having a disalicylmethane unit linked to C-3 of cholestane by a three-carbon linker, was synthesized from commercially available starting materials by a convergent route. Cosalane proved to be a potent inhibitor of HIV with a broad range of activity against a variety of laboratory, drug-resistant, and clinical HIV-1 isolates, HIV-2, and Rauscher murine leukemia virus. The cytotoxicity of cosalane is relatively low as reflected by an in vitro therapeutic index of > 100. Although cosalane inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease, time of addition experiments indicate that it prevents the cytopathic effect of HIV by acting earlier than reverse transcription in the viral replication cycle. The available evidence indicates that the primary mechanism of action of cosalane involves inhibition of gp120-CD4 binding as well as inhibition of a postattachment event prior to reverse transcription.