Detection of biclonal gammopathy by capillary zone electrophoresis in a cat and a dog with plasma cell neoplasia

Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Roberto Vailati FacchiniP Roccabianca

Abstract

Gammopathies associated with plasma cell neoplasms in a 15-year-old female spayed domestic shorthaired cat and a 9-year-old female spayed Rottweiler dog were evaluated by serum protein electrophoresis. In the cat, the plasma cell neoplasm was found in the liver and spleen, and an evaluable sample of bone marrow was not obtained. Some of the plasma cells had the morphologic appearance of flame cells. The paraprotein was confirmed as IgG based on agar gel immunodiffusion precipitation and both immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical staining. The dog had multiple myeloma with production of IgG and IgA paraproteins. In both cases, serum proteins were evaluated by 2 methods of protein electrophoresis: cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). In the cat and the dog, CAE showed a single large oligoclonal-like peak, which occurred in the γ-region in the cat and the β-γ-region in the dog, whereas CZE showed a biclonal gammopathy with 2 very close narrow spikes in the γ- and β-γ-regions in the cat and dog, respectively. In selected cases, CZE may be more effective than routine CAE in distinguishing oligoclonal from monoclonal or biclonal paraproteinemia.

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