Detection of risk of cancer to man

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character
R Peto

Abstract

Epidemiology can pick out large-scale determinants of human cancer, such as smoking. Also, epidemiology can pick out carcinogens such as asbestos to which groups of perhaps a few hundred or a few thousand workers have been heavily exposed for decades. However, if highly exposed groups cannot be studied then epidemiology cannot recognize carcinogens which, although perhaps widely distributed, produce only a small percentage increase in particular cancers. Almost all of the environmental pollutants that can affect human cancer incidence will do so only to a very minor extent, at the levels to which we are currently exposed. For this reason, and also because it is often difficult to define an exposed and an unexposed group which do not differ in other ways as well, it will almost always be impossible to do anything epidemiologically except to set a very crude upper limit on their likely hazards. The only way, therefore, to get any direct estimate of these hazards is by laboratory studies of the effects of high doses on various model systems. For this and for other reasons, it would be highly desirable to have good laboratory models for human carcinogenesis. The characteristics required of satisfactory laboratory systems are review...Continue Reading

References

Jan 1, 1981·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·R C Barnard
Jan 1, 1986·Toxicologic Pathology·J A DiPaoloS Yasumoto
Aug 1, 1980·Royal Society of Health Journal·K Fletcher
Sep 1, 1983·Archives of Environmental Health·K Browne
Nov 15, 1994·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·G G Altmann, P K Lala
Aug 1, 1991·Environmental Health Perspectives·G Goodman, R Wilson

Citations

Jan 1, 1924·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J W Alexander

Related Concepts

Tumor Promoters
Study
Transformation, Genetic
Laboratory Studies
Squamous Transitional Epithelial Cell Count
Environment
Asbestos
Cell Culture Techniques
Neoplasms
Medical Devices

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Synapse Loss as Therapeutic Target in MS

As we age, the number of synapses present in the human brain starts to decline, but in neurodegenerative diseases this occurs at an accelerated rate. In MS, it has been shown that there is a reduction in synaptic density, which presents a potential target for treatment. Here is the latest research on synapse loss as a therapeutic target in MS.

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging

Artificial intelligence (ai) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (cv) medicine in cardiac imaging analysis. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Social Learning

Social learning involves learning new behaviors through observation, imitation and modeling. Follow this feed to stay up to date on the latest research.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Single Cell Chromatin Profiling

Techniques like ATAC-seq and CUT&Tag have the potential to allow single cell profiling of chromatin accessibility, histones, and TFs. This will provide novel insight into cellular heterogeneity and cell states. Discover the latest research on single cell chromatin profiling here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.