Determinants and prognostic value of cardiovascular autonomic function in coronary artery disease patients with and without type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Care
Jaana J KarjalainenMikko P Tulppo


OBJECTIVE Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is a common finding among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The reasons and prognostic value of autonomic dysfunction in CAD patients with T2D are not well known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined the association between heart rate recovery (HRR), 24-h heart rate (HR) variability (SD of normal R-R interval [SDNN]), and HR turbulence (HRT), and echocardiographic parameters, metabolic, inflammatory, and coronary risk variables, exercise capacity, and the presence of T2D among 1,060 patients with CAD (mean age 67 ± 8 years; 69% males; 50% patients with T2D). Second, we investigated how autonomic function predicts a composite end point of cardiovascular death, acute coronary event, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure during a 2-year follow-up. RESULTS In multiple linear regression model, exercise capacity was a strong predictor of HRR (R = 0.34, P < 0.001), SDNN (R = 0.33, P < 0.001), and HRT (R = 0.13, P = 0.001). In univariate analyses, a composite end point was predicted by reduced HRR (hazard ratio 1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.6]; P = 0.020), reduced SDNN (2.0 [95% CI 1.2-3.1]; P = 0.005), and blunted HRT (2.1 [1.3-3.4]; P = 0.003) only in ...Continue Reading


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