Mar 12, 1976

Determination of H+/e- ratios in chloroplasts with flashing light

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
C F Fowler, B Kok


Using a rapid pH electrode, measurements were made of the flash-induced proton transport in isolated spinach chloroplasts. To calibrate the system, we assumed that in the presence of ferricyanide and in steady-state flashing light, each flash liberates from water one proton per reaction chain. We concluded that with both ferricyanide and methylviologen as acceptors two protons per electron are translocated by the electron transport chain connecting Photosystem II and I. With methyl viologen but not with ferricyanide as an acceptor, two additional protons per electron are taken up due to Photosystem I activity. One of these latter protons is translocated to the inside of the thylakoid while the other is taken up in H2O2 formation. Assuming that the proton released during water splitting remains inside the thylakoid, we compute H+/e- ratios of 3 and 4 for ferricyanide and methylviologen, respectively. In continuous light of low intensity, we obtained the same H+/e- ratios. However, with higher intensities where electron transport becomes rate limited by the internal pH, the H+/e- ratio approached 2 as a limit for both acceptors. A working model is presented which includes two sites of proton translocation, one between the photoac...Continue Reading

  • References4
  • Citations12


Mentioned in this Paper

Spinach preparation
Paragreen A
Hydrogen Peroxide
Spinacia oleracea
Electron Transport
Effects of Radiation

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.