Developing biomarkers for improved diagnosis and treatment outcome monitoring of bladder cancer

Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
S Lintula, K Hotakainen

Abstract

A non-invasive marker for the follow-up and diagnosis of bladder cancer is highly needed. Several markers have been studied with regard to sensitivity and specificity in detecting bladder cancer. Comparison of studies is complicated by limited data on tumor characteristics and treatment details. Many studies do not differentiate between primary and recurrent tumors, nor is the performance of the studied marker assessed separately in superficial and invasive or high- versus low-grade tumors. The field of bladder cancer biomarker research from the past 15 years. WHAT THE READER GAIN: A summary of the current field of bladder biomarker research with concluding remarks on some specific challenges in developing biomarkers for improved diagnosis and monitoring the disease. In general, the best new markers give higher sensitivity than urinary cytology, but specificity is usually lower. By using new markers, the intervals between follow-up cystoscopies can be increased and the detection of relapse can be improved. But to date no non-invasive biomarker has proven to be sensitive and specific enough available to replace cystoscopy, neither in the diagnosis nor in the follow-up of bladder cancer. However, new marker combinations and algor...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Malignant Neoplasm of Urinary Bladder
Cystoscopic Surgical Procedures
TNM Staging System
Tumor Markers
Urine
Benefit-Risk Assessment
Biological Markers
Urinary Bladder
Cystoscopy
Cytology

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