Cortical folding is a hallmark of many, but not all, mammalian brains. The degree of folding increases with brain size across mammals, but at different scales between orders and families. In this review we summarize recent studies that have shed light on cortical folding and discuss new models that arise from these data. Genetic analyses argue for an independent development of brain volume and gyrification, but more recent data on the cellular development of the cortex and its connectivity highlight the role of these processes in cortical folding (grey matter hypothesis). This, and the widely discussed tension hypothesis, further tested by analyzing the mechanical properties of maturing nerve fibers, synapses, and dendrites, can provide the basis for a future integrative view on cortical folding.
Common variation in NCAN, a risk factor for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, influences local cortical folding in schizophrenia
The polymorphism of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, and orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects
Evolutionarily dynamic alternative splicing of GPR56 regulates regional cerebral cortical patterning
Evolution of cytoarchitectural landscapes in the mammalian isocortex: Sirenians (Trichechus manatus) in comparison with other mammals
Structural asymmetry of the human cerebral cortex: Regional and between-subject variability of surface area, cortical thickness, and local gyrification
Quantifying interindividual variability and asymmetry of face-selective regions: a probabilistic functional atlas
Spatiotemporal patterns of cortical fiber density in developing infants, and their relationship with cortical thickness
S-phase duration is the main target of cell cycle regulation in neural progenitors of developing ferret neocortex
Does degree of gyrification underlie the phenotypic and genetic associations between cortical surface area and cognitive ability?
Age- and function-related regional changes in cortical folding of the default mode network in older adults
Variable temporoinsular cortex neuroanatomy in primates suggests a bottleneck effect in eastern gorillas
Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development
Identifying Shared Brain Networks in Individuals by Decoupling Functional and Anatomical Variability
It's not too late: the onset of the frontocentral P3 indexes successful response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm
NCAN Cross-Disorder Risk Variant Is Associated With Limbic Gray Matter Deficits in Healthy Subjects and Major Depression
Cortical thickness, surface area, and folding alterations in male youths with conduct disorder and varying levels of callous-unemotional traits
The mid-fusiform sulcus: a landmark identifying both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of human ventral temporal cortex
BRAIN STRUCTURE. Cortical folding scales universally with surface area and thickness, not number of neurons
Reduced Gyrification Is Related to Reduced Interhemispheric Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Cortical signature of patients with HBV-related cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy: a morphometric analysis
Cytoarchitectonic mapping of the human brain cerebellar nuclei in stereotaxic space and delineation of their co-activation patterns
Cortical gyrification and its relationships with cortical volume, cortical thickness, and cognitive performance in healthy mid-life adults
Developmental history of the transient subplate zone in the visual and somatosensory cortex of the macaque monkey and human brain
A primal sketch of the cortex mean curvature: a morphogenesis based approach to study the variability of the folding patterns
"Sulcal root" generic model: a hypothesis to overcome the variability of the human cortex folding patterns
Automated computation of the Gyrification Index in prefrontal lobes: methods and comparison with manual implementation
Reduced neocortical thickness and complexity mapped in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
Pre-frontal lobe gyrification index in schizophrenia, mental retardation and comorbid groups: an automated study
Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae)
Variability of the paracingulate sulcus and morphometry of the medial frontal cortex: associations with cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and sulcal depth
Alterations in midline cortical thickness and gyrification patterns mapped in children with 22q11.2 deletions
Computational morphometry for detecting changes in brain structure due to development, aging, learning, disease and evolution
Genetics of primary cerebral gyrification: Heritability of length, depth and area of primary sulci in an extended pedigree of Papio baboons
A surface-based analysis of hemispheric asymmetries and folding of cerebral cortex in term-born human infants
Frontal white matter volume is associated with brain enlargement and higher structural connectivity in anthropoid primates
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