Dexamethasone is associated with early deaths in light chain amyloidosis patients with severe cardiac involvement.

PloS One
Mélanie BézardThibaud Damy

Abstract

Cardiac light chain amyloidosis (AL-CA) patients often die within three months of starting chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for non-immunoglobulin M gammopathy with AL-CA frequently includes bortezomib (Bor), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and dexamethasone (D). We previously reported that NT-ProBNP levels can double within 24h of dexamethasone administration, suggesting a deleterious impact on cardiac function. In this study, we evaluate the role of dexamethasone in early cardiovascular mortality during treatment. We retrospectively assessed 100 de novo cardiac AL patients (62% male, mean age 68 years) treated at our institute between 2009 and 2018 following three chemotherapy regimens: CyBorDComb (all initiated on day 1; 34 patients), DCyBorSeq (D, day 1; Cy, day 8; Bor, day 15; 17 patients), and CyBorDSeq (Cy, day 1; Bor, day 8; D, day 15; 49 patients). The primary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality and cardiac transplantation at days 22 and 455. At day 22, mortality was 20.6% with CyBorDComb, 23.5% with DCyBorSeq, and 0% with CyBorDSeq (p = 0.003). At day 455, mortality was not significantly different between regimens (p = 0.195). Acute toxicity of dexamethasone was evaluated on myocardial function using a rat model of isolated perfus...Continue Reading

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