Diabetes mellitus and electrolyte disorders

World Journal of Clinical Cases
George LiamisMoses Elisaf

Abstract

Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment.

References

Nov 1, 1979·The American Journal of Medicine·R J WinterO C Green
Apr 1, 1979·Physiological Reviews·H Lund-Andersen
Mar 1, 1977·Hospital Practice·R A Kreisberg
May 1, 1978·Annals of Internal Medicine·R A Kreisberg
Jan 1, 1991·American Journal of Nephrology·P C SinghalL Desroches
Jan 1, 1990·The Journal of Diabetic Complications·J UribarriH J Carroll
Apr 1, 1989·European Journal of Clinical Investigation·M KomjatiP Bratusch-Marrain
Jan 1, 1988·Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association·S M MacRuryA C McCuish
May 1, 1986·Medicine·H J AdroguéG Eknoyan
Jun 1, 1988·Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology·M KomjatiP Bratusch-Marrain
Nov 1, 1985·The American Journal of Medicine·R KeblerP Cadnapaphornchai
Apr 1, 1973·Annals of Internal Medicine·A M MosesM Miller
Apr 1, 1973·The American Journal of Medicine·P M Beigelman
Jun 1, 1982·The American Journal of Physiology·K L Minaker, J W Rowe
Jul 1, 1983·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·J N Fisher, A E Kitabchi
Nov 1, 1983·Diabetes·P R Bratusch-Marrain, R A DeFronzo
Sep 1, 1983·Diabetes Care·T KadowakiS Yoshida
Jan 1, 1980·Kidney International·R A DeFronzo
Sep 1, 1981·The American Journal of Medicine·H J Adrogué, N E Madias
Jan 1, 1981·Acta Endocrinologica·P McNairI Transbøl
Jan 1, 1981·The American Journal of Medicine·F B Davis, P J Davis
Oct 30, 1993·BMJ : British Medical Journal·G M LordF M Muntoni
Sep 1, 1996·Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice·M S ElisafK C Siamopoulos
Aug 26, 1998·Lancet·J R Weisinger, E Bellorín-Font
May 4, 1999·The American Journal of Medicine·T A HillierE J Barrett
Feb 13, 2001·Bone·E BalintS M Sprague
Feb 15, 2001·Nephron·L BankirM Ahloulay
Apr 4, 2001·Journal of Internal Medicine·H J MilionisM S Elisaf
Jun 26, 2001·Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews·W H Taylor, A A Khaleeli
Mar 11, 2004·Journal of Endocrinological Investigation·M Procopio, G Borretta
Aug 6, 2004·The New England Journal of Medicine·Biff F Palmer
Oct 21, 2004·American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology·Mauro BustamanteEric Féraille
Mar 29, 2005·American Journal of Surgery·Matthew C ByrnesR Stephen Smith
Apr 7, 2005·Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice·Mitsuyo ShintaniHaruo Nishimura
Feb 2, 2006·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·George LiamisMoses Elisaf
Jul 1, 2006·Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics·Mario Barbagallo, Ligia J Dominguez

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Mar 26, 2016·Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases : Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery·Cunchuan WangShing Lee
Dec 27, 2015·European Journal of Internal Medicine·T D FilippatosM S Elisaf
Dec 22, 2015·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·Bhavna Bhasin, Juan Carlos Q Velez
Mar 12, 2016·Annals of Vascular Surgery·Devon CallahanDennis Y Kim
Apr 23, 2016·Forensic Science International : Synergy·B ZilgH Druid
Jul 2, 2016·Kidney Research and Clinical Practice·Yuichiro UedaYoshiyuki Morishita
Oct 22, 2016·European Journal of Endocrinology·Steef KurstjensJoost G J Hoenderop
Sep 22, 2016·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·Raul Hernandes BortolinAdriana Augusto de Rezende
Apr 27, 2017·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Spencer C H KuoChing-Hua Hsieh
Feb 7, 2017·Nutrition & Metabolism·Kuat OshakbayevAlisher Idrisov
Jun 10, 2016·Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·Matthew AmoniAsfree Gwanyanya
May 24, 2018·Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association·R W ThomsenH T Sørensen
May 24, 2018·Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association·F K Dojki, G L Bakris
Sep 26, 2017·Eye & Contact Lens·Ali M MasmaliTurki Almubrad
Nov 25, 2018·Acta Clinica Belgica·Lissa PipeleersRobert Hilbrands
Sep 21, 2017·Journal of Veterinary Science·Changhwan AhnEui-Bae Jeung
Aug 3, 2017·Neonatal Network : NN·Martha Anne ZammitJean Calleja-Agius
Jul 28, 2017·Expert Opinion on Drug Safety·Theodosios FilippatosGeorge Liamis
Feb 29, 2020·Sensors·Maryamsadat Shokrekhodaei, Stella Quinones
Aug 1, 2020·Annals of the American Thoracic Society·Stephen A MeinJeremy B Richards
Aug 5, 2020·BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology·Ivan VelatViktor Čulić
Sep 4, 2020·BMJ Case Reports·Emily BriggsNatasha Singh
Mar 17, 2017·Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM·Haddad A El RabeyAmal S Bakhashwain
Sep 12, 2015·American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology·Muhammad A Abdul-GhaniRalph A DeFronzo
Apr 23, 2017·Heart Failure Reviews·E C ChristopoulouG Liamis
Mar 9, 2019·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Marcela Nascimento SertorioMariana Machado-Neves
Nov 30, 2019·Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience·Efstathia MegapanouGeorge Liamis
Oct 11, 2017·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·Ivonne LoefflerGunter Wolf
Apr 18, 2020·Journal of General Internal Medicine·Emily B SchroederJohn F Steiner
Apr 17, 2020·European Geriatric Medicine·Simone J C PaulisJos M G A Schols
Sep 29, 2020·Frontiers in Medicine·Todd S IngAntonios H Tzamaloukas
Nov 18, 2016·American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology·Simone Kersten, Francisco J Arjona
Feb 8, 2018·Physiological Reviews·Natalia PrevarskayaYaroslav Shuba
Aug 17, 2018·Case Reports in Endocrinology·Vinod KumarMonisha Singhal

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Blastomycosis

Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
R TakedaA Fujimura
Taiwan yi xue hui za zhi. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
J D LinH S Huang
© 2022 Meta ULC. All rights reserved