PMID: 7808097Jan 1, 1995

Diabetic ketoacidosis

The Medical Clinics of North America
Abbas E Kitabchi, B M Wall


This article reviews the pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and provides a rational approach to the management of patients with DKA. The therapeutic discussion includes the use of low-dose insulin, no bicarbonate, or phosphate therapy on the majority of DKA patients, based on numerous prospective randomized studies. The article also discusses controversial subjects such as the use of hypotonic versus isotonic saline with and without colloids, hydration of subjects before insulin therapy, and admission of DKA patients to the general ward versus emergency ward versus intensive care unit. A concise, simple protocol is also presented as a suitable reference for management of patients with DKA.


Jan 15, 2000·Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews·L Laffel
Feb 24, 2001·Diabetes Care·Abbas E KitabchiB M Wall
Oct 23, 2002·Clinical Endocrinology·Stamatis P EfstathiouTheodore D Mountokalakis
May 4, 2007·Periodontology 2000·Brian L Mealey, Gloria L Ocampo
Oct 12, 2010·International Journal of Legal Medicine·Frank MusshoffBurkhard Madea
Oct 25, 2014·Diabetes Care·Francisco J Pasquel, Guillermo E Umpierrez
Jun 16, 2014·Nature Medicine·Rachel J PerryGerald I Shulman
Feb 12, 2017·Journal of Endocrinological Investigation·S Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Angelo Avogaro
May 15, 2018·Case Reports in Emergency Medicine·Christopher W MeadenStacey Barnes
Jul 1, 1996·Pediatric Annals·J Klekamp, K B Churchwell
Nov 5, 1998·Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners·K Rosenberger
Jan 11, 2000·Critical Care Medicine·A ViallonJ C Bertrand
Jan 30, 2016·BMC Emergency Medicine·Ralphe Bou CheblLenar Yessayan
Nov 3, 2017·Pediatric Emergency Care·Randall Yimbong ChanCynthia H Ho
Dec 6, 2000·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·E AzoulayB Schlemmer
Nov 27, 2002·Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics·Ulf Samuelsson, Johnny Ludvigsson
Dec 6, 2001·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·J B BoordA C Powers
Nov 24, 2004·Endocrine Research·Firat BektasHalide Akbas
Dec 20, 2003·Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi·Yukashi Ohki
May 6, 2005·Treatments in Endocrinology·Guillermo E Umpierrez, Abbas E Kitabchi
Jun 1, 1996·Postgraduate Medicine·J Michael Gonzalez-Campoy, R Paul Robertson
May 15, 2007·European Journal of Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine·Shahriar ZehtabchiMichael Lucchesi
Jan 12, 2008·American Journal of Medical Quality : the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality·Natalia B VolkovaMichael W Peterson
Apr 14, 2010·Journal of Endocrinological Investigation·M G BaenaM Aguilar-Diosdado
May 20, 2020·Current Diabetes Reports·Benedetta Maria BonoraGian Paolo Fadini
Jan 23, 2008·Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia·Bianca BaroneJosé Egidio P de Oliveira
Mar 4, 2021·São Paulo Medical Journal = Revista Paulista De Medicina·Rachel Teixeira Leal NunesAecio Flavio Teixeira de Gois

Related Concepts

Metabolic Acidosis
Carbonic Acid Ions
Vasogenic Cerebral Edema
Chloride Ion Level
Emergencies [Disease/Finding]
Insulin B Chain
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