Diagnosis and management of vesicoureteral reflux in children

Nature Reviews. Urology
Christopher S Cooper

Abstract

Critical evaluation of previously accepted dogma regarding the evaluation and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has raised significant questions regarding all aspects of VUR management. Whereas the standard of care previously consisted of antibiotic prophylaxis for any child with VUR, it is now unclear which children, if any, truly benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis. Operative intervention for VUR constitutes overtreatment in many children, yet there are limited data available to indicate which children benefit from VUR correction through decreased rates of adverse long-term clinical sequelae. Studies with longer follow-up demonstrate decreased efficacy of endoscopic therapy that was previously hoped to approach the success of ureteroneocystostomy. Prospective studies might identify risk factors for pyelonephritis and renal scarring without antibiotic prophylaxis. Careful retrospective reviews of adults with a history of reflux might allow childhood risk factors for adverse sequelae to be characterized. Through analysis of multiple characteristics, better clinical management of VUR on an individualized basis will become the new standard of care.

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Related Concepts

Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
Disease Management
Endoscopy (Procedure)
Patient Care
Kidney
Pyelonephritis
Retrospective Studies
Intravesical Reimplantation of Ureter
Evaluation
Sequelae Aspects

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