Diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: comparison of clinical and microbiological diagnosis

Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Esra Esim BuyukbayrakMehmet Cem Turan


The purpose of the present study was to compare the current diagnostic clinical and laboratory approaches to women with vulvovaginal discharge complaint. The secondary outcomes were to determine the prevalence of infections in our setting and to look for the relation between vulvovaginal infections and predisposing factors if present. Premenopausal women applying to our gynecology outpatient clinic with vaginal discharge complaint were enrolled prospectively into the study. Each patient evaluated clinically with direct observation of vaginal secretions, wet mount examination, whiff test, vaginal pH testing and chlamydia rapid antigen test. Each patient also evaluated microbiologically with vaginal discharge culture and gram staining. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the microbiological diagnosis (the gold standard). Diagnostic accuracy was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv). 460 patients were included in the study. 89.8% of patients received a clinical diagnosis whereas only 36% of them had microbiological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv of clinical diagnosis over microbiological culture results were 95, 13, 38, 82%, respectively. The most commonly e...Continue Reading


Jul 20, 1999·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Harold C Wiesenfeld, I Macio
Feb 15, 2001·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·G Donders
Feb 21, 2003·Social Science & Medicine·Alison Karasz, Matthew R Anderson
Mar 18, 2004·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Matthew R AndersonAndreas Cohrssen
May 1, 2004·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Daniel V LandersSharon L Hillier
Aug 2, 2005·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·A KaraerA F Avsar
Mar 1, 2006·Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials·Andreas SchwiertzVolker Rusch


Dec 23, 2015·Critical Reviews in Microbiology·Bruna GonçalvesSónia Silva
May 8, 2013·Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences·Rita M MachadoRita Palmeira-de-Oliveira
Aug 23, 2011·Trends in Microbiology·Melphine M Harriott, Mairi C Noverr
Sep 25, 2012·The Australasian Journal of Dermatology·Gayle Fischer
Jul 17, 2016·Journal of Infection and Public Health·Chaitanya TellapragadaChiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Oct 30, 2015·Singapore Medical Journal·Farzaneh EbrahimyHamid Alavi Majd
May 10, 2020·Scientific Reports·H M H N BandaraL P Samaranayake
Feb 18, 2017·Current Infectious Disease Reports·Theophilus Ogochukwu NwankwoUchenna Anthony Umeh
Nov 12, 2020·Journal of Fungi·Valentina SustrAlex Farr

Related Concepts

Gram's stain
Candida utilis
Candidiasis of Vagina
Gentiaanviolet FNA
Gardnerella vaginalis
Streak Plate Count
Bacterial Vaginosis
Vaginal Discharge

Related Feeds

Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis can increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections and in rare cases lead to pelvic inflammatory diseases. Discover the latest research on Bacterial Vaginosis here.

Candida albicans

Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. Discover the latest research on Candida albicans here.