Diagnostic yield of tuberculosis using sputum induction in HIV-positive patients before antiretroviral therapy

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease : the Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Stephen D LawnRobin Wood


Adults (n = 602) enrolling in a South African antiretroviral treatment clinic underwent culture-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), regardless of symptoms. For those unable to spontaneously expectorate a 'spot' sample (n = 124), sputum induction with nebulised hypertonic saline was used to obtain a first sample and also to rapidly obtain a second sample from all patients. Collection of both samples typically took 10-15 min. The prevalence of culture-positive TB was 15.6% (95%CI 12.8-18.8). Spontaneously expectorated spot samples yielded 79.8% of all culture-positive TB diagnoses. The incremental yield from those needing an induced first sample was 5.3% and the yield from induced second samples was 14.9%.


Dec 9, 2016·The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Yukari C ManabeFrank Cobelens
Oct 17, 2019·Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine·Nirvana Bharuthram, Charles Feldman

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Epigenetics Insights from Twin Studies

Find the latest research on epigenetics and twin studies here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.