Dialysate Calcium Concentration, Mineral Metabolism Disorders, and Cardiovascular Disease: Deciding the Hemodialysis Bath

American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Amit LangoteDeborah L Zimmerman

Abstract

Patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis are at increased risk to experience fractures and cardiovascular events than similar-aged people from the general population. The enhanced risk for these outcomes in dialysis patients is not completely explained by traditional risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Mineral metabolism abnormalities are almost universal by the time patients require dialysis therapy, with most patients having some type of renal osteodystrophy and vascular calcification. These abnormalities have been linked to adverse skeletal and cardiovascular events. However, it has become clear that the treatment regimens used to modify the serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels almost certainly contribute to the poor outcomes for dialysis patients. In this article, we focus on one aspect of mineral metabolism management; dialysate calcium concentration and the relationships among dialysate calcium concentrations, mineral and bone disorder, and cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients.

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Related Concepts

Osteopenia
Calcium
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hemodialysis
Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Parathyroid Hormone Peptide (1-34)
Hemodialyzates
Vascular Calcification
Bone Diseases

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