Differences in patient age distribution between influenza A subtypes.

PloS One
Hossein KhiabanianRaul Rabadan


Since the spring of 1977, two subtypes of influenza A virus (H3N2 and H1N1) have been seasonally infecting the human population. In this work we study the distribution of patient ages within the populations that exhibit the symptomatic disease caused by each of the different subtypes of seasonal influenza viruses. When the publicly available extensive information is pooled across multiple geographical locations and seasons, striking differences emerge between these subtypes. We report that the symptomatic flu due to H1N1 is distributed mainly in a younger population relative to H3N2. (The median age of the H3N2 patients is 23 years while H1N1 patients are 9 years old.) These distinct characteristic spectra of age groups, possibly carried over from previous pandemics, are consistent with previous reports from various regional population studies and also findings on the evolutionary dynamics of each subtype. Moreover, they are relevant to age-related risk assessments, modeling of epidemiological networks for specific age groups, and age-specific vaccine design. Recently, a novel H1N1 virus has spread around the world. Preliminary reports suggest that this new strain causes symptomatic disease in the younger population in a simila...Continue Reading


Jun 1, 1985·American Journal of Epidemiology·A S MontoI M Longini
Mar 15, 1995·American Journal of Epidemiology·A S MontoA Talsma
Jul 4, 1998·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·L SimonsenK Fukuda
Mar 5, 2002·Bulletin of the History of Medicine·Niall P A S Johnson, Juergen Mueller
Jan 9, 2003·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·William W ThompsonKeiji Fukuda
Feb 24, 2006·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Edwin D Kilbourne
Oct 19, 2007·Journal of Virology·Yiming BaoDavid Lipman
Apr 18, 2008·Nature·Andrew RambautEdward C Holmes
May 9, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Fatimah S DawoodTimothy M Uyeki
Mar 2, 2011·Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy·Kiyomitsu MiyachiRaleigh W Hankins

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Feb 23, 2010·PloS One·Antoine NougairèdeXavier de Lamballerie
Jul 13, 2011·PloS One·Drosos E KarageorgopoulosMatthew E Falagas
May 30, 2013·PloS One·Antonella Liccardo, Annalisa Fierro
Nov 6, 2013·American Journal of Epidemiology·Talia M QuandelacyEdward Goldstein
Feb 22, 2011·The European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter·A Fierro, A Liccardo
Apr 15, 2011·Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie·G NoelP Minodier
Aug 11, 2015·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Saverio CainiUNKNOWN Global Influenza B Study
Aug 9, 2011·Vaccine·Guus F RimmelzwaanAlbert D M E Osterhaus
Mar 5, 2016·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·A AntónT Pumarola
Mar 8, 2018·PLoS Computational Biology·Elizabeth C LeeShweta Bansal
Nov 15, 2018·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Cécile SoutyThierry Blanchon
Jun 4, 2020·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·Lidia Redondo-Bravo The Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System
Feb 4, 2010·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·A NougairedeX de Lamballerie

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned

Genome Sequencing

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Science Translational Medicine
Ethan C SettembreRino Rappuoli
Respirology : Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Masahide KajiHisamichi Aizawa
Epidemiology and Infection
A L GreerD N Fisman
© 2022 Meta ULC. All rights reserved